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Nutritional status of India &

Gujarat, NNP & Indicators

ARVIND PATEL
Retired Demonstration officer
Food & Nutrition Board
Min. of Women & Child Development
Govt.Of India
Ahmedabad
Why Nutrition is Important?

 Good Nutrition - Material basis for human resource


development
 Nutrition - Issue of survival, health & Development
 Children born under weight –Have impaired immune function,Increase
risk of diseases such as diabetes & heart disease
 Malnourished children-Tend to have low IQ
Impaired cognitive ability affecting their school performance &
productivity in their later life

Nutritional health in all age groups


Represents national economic asset
Malnutrition & Productivity

Reduce work
House hold food
Capacity &
Insecurity
Work out put

Malnutrition in
Childhood &
Cost of Malnutrition
 TO THE ECONOMY OF A NATION IS
EXTREMLY HIGH

MALNUTRITION REDUCED INDIA`S GDP


BY 3 TO 9% IN 1996

COST OF TRATING MALNUTRITION IS 27 TIMES


MORE THAN INVESTMENT REQUIRED FOR ITS
PREVENTION
Nutrition scene at the time of
Independence
 Inadequate Food Production,
 Series of Famines,
 Florid Nutritional Deficiency Disorders like
Beriberi, Pellagra and Scurvy,
 Severe under-nutrition and malnutrition among
children,
 High infant and child mortality rates,
 Very low literacy levels and nutritional awareness.
Achieved till NHFS-1

 The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) reduced


from 146 in 1951-61 to 67.6 in 1999.
 The Under 5 Mortality Rate has reduced
from 236 in 1960 to 105 in 1998.
 Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) has
reduced from 570 per 1,00,000 in 1990 to
408 in 1998.
 During 1960s the Food and Nutrition Board
(FNB) was established in the Department of
Food
 Special Nutrition Programme) was launched
in 1970 for bridging the energy and protein
gap in daily diets of pre-school children in
urban slums, tribal areas and backward rural
areas.
 Specific nutritional interventions like
Prophylaxis against Nutritional Anemia and
Nutritional Blindness were launched through
the health infrastructure.
 the Integrated Child Development Services
(ICDS) Scheme was launched on 2nd
October, 1975
National Nutrition Policy
(NNP)
 The adoption of National Nutrition
Policy (NNP) by the Government
under the aegis of the Deptt. of
Women & Child Development in 1993
has been one of the significant
achievements on Nutrition scene in
the country.
The vicious cycle of Poverty
The major nutrition problems
of India can be classified
(1) Under-nutrition resulting in:
 (a) Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM);
 (b) Iron deficiency;
 (c) Iodine deficiency
 (d) Vit “A" deficiency.
 (e) Low Birth Weight children;
(2) Seasonal dimensions of Nutrition;
(3) Natural calamities & the landless.
(4) Market Distortion and Disinformation;
(5) Urbanizations.
(6) Special Nutritional Problems of Hill People, Industrial
Workers, Migrant Workers, and other special categories;
(7) Problems of Over nutrition, overweight and obesity
The Strategy of NNP

 Nutrition is a multi-sectoral issue and needs to be


tackled at various levels. Nutrition affects
development as much as development affects
nutrition. It is therefore. important to tackle the
problem of nutrition both through direct nutrition
intervention for specially vulnerable groups as well
as through various development policy instruments
which will create conditions for improved nutrition.
Interventions
 Direct intervention – short term
 Nutrition Intervention for specially vulnerable groups
 Fortification of Essential Foods
 Popularisation of Low Cost Nutritious Food
 Control of Micro-Nutrient Deficiency amongst vulnerable
Groups
 Indirect Policy Instruments: Long Term
 Food Security
 Improvement of Dietary pattern through Production and Demonstration
 Improvement in poverty
 Land reform
 Health and family welfare and knowledge about nutrition
 Prevention of food adulteration
 Nutritional surveillance
Child nutritional status India-
Gujarat

India Gujarat
Vaccination status India-
Gujarat

India Gujarat
Trends in Infant Mortality

India Gujarat
Nutritional status of ever
married adult
Indicators NHFS- NHFS-2 NHFS-3 NHFS-2
3 India India Gujarat Gujarat
Women with 33 36 32.3 37
low BMI
(%)
Overweight 14.8 10.6 20 15.8
or obese
women (%)
Men 12.1 N/A 15.4 N/A
overweight/
Anemia among Children
and Adults
Indicator NHFS-3 NHFS-2 NHFS-3 NHFS-2
India India Guja Guja
Children age 6-35
months who are 79 74 80.1 74.5
anemic (%)
Ever-married women
age 15-49 who are 56.2 51.8 55.5 46.3
anemic (%)
Pregnant women age
15-49 who are 57.9 49.7 60.8 47.4
anemic (%)
Ever-married men
age 15-49 who are 24.3 N/A 22.1 N/A
anemic (%)
Anemia in women
Anaemia among children
Child Feeding Practices
and Nutritional Status of
Indicator
Children
NHFS-3 NHFS-2 NHFS-1 NHFS-3 NHFS-2 NHFS-1
India India India Guja Guj Guja
Children under
3 years 23.4 16 9.5 27.1 10.1 13.9
breastfed within
one hour of birth
(%)
Children under
3 years who are 38.4 45.5 N/A 42.4 43.6 44.1
stunted (%)
Children under
3 years who are 19.1 15.5 N/A 17 16.2 19
wasted (%)
Children under
3 years who are 45.9 47 51.5 47.4 45.1 48.1
underweight (%)
Infant & Young Child Feeding Practices
in Gujarat

Disparities within Districts


Initiation of Breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth

DLHS-3, 2007-08
Exclusive Breastfeeding (0-6 months)

DLHS-3, 2007-08
Children 6-24 month fed complementary food

DLHS-3, 2007-08
Infant & Young Child Feeding Index

DLHS-3, 2007-08
Stunting Among Children
Under 3 Years
by Mother’s Education and
SLI
Food consumption practice
Women’s food consumption
Thank you
&
Secure your HEALTH

ARVIND PATEL