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1 (de) vizualizări22 paginiPhasor Diagram of Transformer

Aug 31, 2018

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Phasor Diagram of Transformer

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1 (de) vizualizări

Phasor Diagram of Transformer

© All Rights Reserved

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• When the transformer is operating at no load, the

secondary winding is open circuited, which means there

is no load on the secondary side of the transformer

and, therefore, current in the secondary will be zero,

while primary winding carries a small current I0 called

no load current which is 2 to 10% of the rated current.

• This current is responsible for supplying the iron losses

(hysteresis and eddy current losses) in the core and a

very small amount of copper losses in the primary

winding.

• The angle of lag depends upon the losses in the

transformer. The power factor is very low and varies

from 0.1 to 0.15.

• The no load current consists of two components

Reactive or magnetizing component Im

(It is in quadrature with the applied voltage V1. It

produces flux in the core and does not consume

any power)

Active or power component Iw, also know as

working component

(It is in phase with the applied voltage V1. It

supplies the iron losses and a small amount of

primary copper loss)

• The following steps are given below to draw the phasor

diagram

The function of the magnetizing component is to produce

the magnetizing flux, and thus, it will be in phase with the

flux.

Induced emf in the primary and the secondary winding lags

the flux ϕ by 90 degrees.

The primary copper loss is neglected, and secondary current

losses are zero as I2 = 0. Therefore, the current I0 lags behind

the voltage vector V1 by an angle ϕ0 called no-load power

factor angle shown in the phasor diagram above.

The applied voltage V1 is drawn equal and opposite to the

induced emf E1 because the difference between the two, at

no load, is negligible.

Active component Iw is drawn in phase with the applied

voltage V1.

The phasor sum of magnetizing current Im and the working

current Iw gives the no load current I0.

• From the phasor diagram

drawn above, the following

conclusions are made

Transformer ON Load Condition

• When the transformer is on the loaded condition, that

means the secondary of the transformer is attached with

some load, either it can be resistive, inductive or

capacitive.

• Current I2 flows through the secondary winding of the

transformer.

• The magnitude of the current I2 depends upon the

terminal voltage V2 and impedance of the load.

• The phase angle depends upon the nature of the load.

Operation of the Transformer on Load Condition

• The Operation of the Transformer on Load

Condition is explained below

When the transformer is on NO load, it draws no

load current I0. This no load current produces an

MMF N1I0 which sets up the flux ϕ in the core as

shown in the figure below

When the transformer is loaded, current

I2 flows in the secondary winding as shown in

the figure below. This secondary current

I2 produces an MMF N2I2, which sets up the

flux ϕ2 in the core. This flux ϕ2 opposes the

flux ϕ which is set up by the current I0.

(According to Lenz’s law).

Since the flux ϕ2 opposes the flux ϕ the resultant

flux tends to decrease and causes the reduction of

self-induced emf E1. Thus, V1 predominates over

E1 causing additional primary current know as

I1’drawn from the supply.The amount of the

additional current is such that the flux in the core

must be restored to its original value ϕ, so that

V1 = E1. The current I1’ is in phase opposition with

I2 and is called Primary Counter Balancing Current.

This additional current I1’produces an MMF, NI I1’

which sets up flux ϕ1’. The direction of the flux ϕ1’

is same as the flux ϕ and it cancels the flux ϕ2 sets

up by the MMF N2I2.

• Now, N1I1’ = N2I2

• Therefore,

The phasor difference between V1 and I1 gives the

power factor angle ϕ1 of the primary side of the

transformer.

The power factor of the secondary side depends

upon the type of load connected to the

transformer.

If the load is inductive as shown in the above

phasor diagram, the power factor will be lagging,

and if the load is capacitive the power factor will

be leading. The total primary current I1 is the

vector sum of the current I0 and I1’. i.e

Phasor Diagram of Transformer on Inductive Load

• The phasor

diagram of the

actual

transformer

when it is loaded

inductively is

shown in fig.

Steps to draw the phasor diagram

Take flux ϕ a reference

Induces emf E1 and E2 lags the flux by 90 degrees.

The component of the applied voltage to the primary

equal and opposite to induced emf in the primary

winding. E1 is represented by V1’.

Current I0 lags the voltage V1’ by 90 degrees.

The power factor of the load be lagging. Therefore

current I2 is drawn lagging E2 by an angle ϕ2.

The resistance and the leakage reactance of the windings

result in a voltage drop and hence secondary terminal

voltage V2 is the phasor difference of E2 and voltage drop.

V2 = E2 – voltage drops

I2 R2 is in phase with I2 and I2X2 is in quadrature with I2.

The total current flowing in the primary winding

is the phasor sum of I1’ and I0.

Primary applied voltage V1 is the phasor sum of

V1’ and the voltage drop in the primary winding.

Current I1’ is drawn equal and opposite to the

current I2

V1 = V1’ + voltage drop

I1R1 is in phase with I1 and I1XI is in quadrature

with I1.

• The phasor difference between V1 and I1 gives the

power factor angle ϕ1 of the primary side of the

transformer.

• The power factor of the secondary side depends

upon the type of load connected to the

transformer.

• If the load is inductive as shown in the above

phasor diagram, the power factor will be lagging,

and if the load is capacitive the power factor will

be leading. Where, I1R1 is the resistive drop in

the primary windings

I2X2 is the reactive drop in the secondary winding

Phasor Diagram of Transformer on Capacitive Load

• The Transformer

on Capacitive

load (leading

power factor

load) is shown

below in the

phasor diagram.

Steps to draw the phasor diagram at

capacitive load

Take flux ϕ a reference

Induces emf E1 and E2 lags the flux by 90 degrees.

The component of the applied voltage to the

primary equal and opposite to induced emf in the

primary winding. E1 is represented by V1’.

Current I0 lags the voltage V1’ by 90 degrees.

The power factor of the load be leading.

Therefore current I2 is drawn leading E2

The resistance and the leakage reactance of the

windings result in a voltage drop and hence secondary

terminal voltage V2 is the phasor difference of E2 and

voltage drop.

V2 = E2 – voltage drops

I2 R2 is in phase with I2 and I2X2 is in quadrature with I2.

Current I1’ is drawn equal and opposite to the current I2

The total current I1 flowing in the primary winding is the

phasor sum of I1’ and I0.

Primary applied voltage V1 is the phasor sum of V1’ and

the voltage drop in the primary winding.

V1 = V1’ + voltage drop

I1R1 is in phase with I1 and I1XI is in quadrature with I1.

The phasor difference between V1 and I1 gives

the power factor angle ϕ1 of the primary side

of the transformer.

The power factor of the secondary side

depends upon the type of load connected to

the transformer.

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