Sunteți pe pagina 1din 23

 Study of rates and mechanism of chemical

 System is not in EQUILIBRIUM.
 Important in understanding the behavior of
chemical system.
 Plays role in assessing pollutants in the
 Deals with the absorption, distribution,
metabolism and exertion of drugs from
biological systems.
 It can be classified as:

1. Homogenous- one phase

ex. Decomposition of nitrogen droxite
2. Heterogenous- 2 or more phase
 Change in concentration over time necessary
for a reaction to take place.
 Deals with a speed at which the concentration
of either reaction/product changes over a
specified time.
 Rate= (∆𝑁2𝑂2/∆𝑡)
 Change in the concentration
of either the reactant/product
at any particular time.
1. Physical methods- measuring physical property
of the reactants/products over time.
2. Chemical methods- use of analytical
3. Static- performed by mixing the reactants in
closed vessel.
4. Flow- allowing the reactants to flow into a
vessel and letting the products flow out.
1. Concentration of the reactants
2. Temperature
3. Presence of catalysts
 Rates of reactions are determined by
receiving the changes based on initial
 This expression wherein 𝑘 refers to
the rate constant and is the order of
the reaction.
 It is an equation decreasing its rate
of reaction influenced by
concentration at a given time.
 Is the power to which the
concentration of a single
substance is raised in the rate
 Integrated Rate Law- it shows changes at
concentration over time.
 Differential Rate Law- it depicts the
dependence of the rate of reaction on
 - it says that Integrated Rate Law , an
irreversible reaction occurs if the equilibrium
constant is very large.
 It can be determined from a graph of
experimental concentration against time.
 Four methods:
1. The half-life method
2. The Powell plot method
3. The Isolation method
4. The method of initial rates.
 Measures initial rate by
performing several trials.
2𝑑 𝐴 𝑛 𝑚
 Rate= - =𝑘 𝐴 𝐵
 Composed of elementary steps that lead to overall
 Elementary steps- reactions whose rate law can be
expressed from the molecularity of the reation.
 Molecularity- pertains to the number of particles
that must collide to react and be able to yield the
product indicated in each elementary step.
 Intermediate- the substance that is neither a
reactant nor a product but is performed and
utilized during the reactions.
 - does not appear in the overall chemical equation.
 Steady-state Approximation- =
 Rate-determining step
Approximation- the slowest step
among the series of elementary steps
describing a multistep reaction.
 Based by Arrhenius behavior of gas-phase
bimolecular reaction.
 States that reaction may occur if the collision of
two hard spheres brings sufficient kinetic
energy to yield the formation of products.
 Minimum amount of energy that
is required y a given chemical
reaction yield the desired
 Supports the fact that at
increased temperature, the
kinetic rate of reaction increases
due to an increase in number of
effective collisions.
 Added to speed up the rate of reaction without
being consumed in the reaction.
 Classified as homogenous or heterogenous
 Homogenous catalyst- present in the same phase.
 Heterogenous catayst- present in different phase
 - is important in manufacturing industrial
chemicals that employ processes such as
polymerization, oil cracking, and hydrogenation.
 A process in which a substance is
introduced on the surface of
another substance classified as
physisorption or chemisorption.
1. Diffusion of the reactants onto the
2. Absorption of the reactants onto the
3. Reaction taking place on the surface.
4. Desorption of products from the surface.
5. Diffusion of products into the solution.
 Enzyme- proteins that catalyze
many biochemical reactions.
 Substrate- acts upon a molecule

 - binds on an active site to form

the enzyme-substrate complex.