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IP Based Network

Concepts
&
Overview

S N Pati, SDE, RTTC


IP Protocols
 Internet or IP technology over the years has
emerged as the most prominent data
communication technology.
 TCP/IP protocol has become de-facto data
communication standard throughout the
world.
 It can carry even voice/video also over IP
protocol and in turn has started challenging
the complete monopoly of TDM technology
in voice communication.
TCP/IP and OSI
 OSI is made of seven layers.
 TCP/IP protocol is made of five layers.
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION APPLICATION

SESSION
OSI Model TRANSPORT TRANSPORT
TCP/IP Model

NETWORK NETWORK
DATA LINK DATA LINK
PHYSICAL PHYSICAL
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
FTP TFTP
A SMTP NFS
TELNET SNMP
HTTP DNS

T TCP UDP

N ICMP IGMP IP ARP RARP

D
PAP,CHAP,HDLC,PPP,LCP
P
Data Encapsulation
Application Data

TPT Layer TCP Header Data


TCP Segment
UDP Header Data

UDP Message

NW Layer IP Header TCP-UDP Data

IP Datagram

Data Link Frame Head IP Header TCP-UDP Data Trailer


Frame
TCP Header
Octet +0 Octet +1 Octet +2 Octet +3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SOURCE PORT DESTINATION PORT

SEQUENCE NUMBER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT NUMBER

UAP RS F
HELEN RCSSYI WINDOW SIZE
GK HT NN

CHECKSUM URGENT POINTER

OPTIONS AND PADDING


UDP Header

Octet +0 Octet +1 Octet +2 Octet +3


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SOURCE PORT DESTINATION PORT
MESSAGE LENGTH CHECKSUM
IP Header
Octet +0 Octet +1 Octet +2 Octet +3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

VER HLEN TOS TOTAL LENGTH

IDENTIFICATION DM FRAGMENT OFFSET


F F

TIME TO LIVE PROTOCOL HEADER CHECKSUM

SOURCE ADDRESS OF HOST

DESTINATION ADDRESS OF HOST

OPTIONS PADDING
Internet Control Message Protocol
 Internet Control Message Protocol is a
mechanism used by hosts and routers to
send notification of datagram problems back
to the sender.
 Sends error messages only to the source and
not to intermediate routers.
 Sole function is to report problems, not to
correct them.
 ICMP uses echo/reply to test whether a
destination is reachable and responding.
Internet Group Message Protocol
 Internet Group Message Protocol
provides allows for multicast to
operate on an internetwork.
 Multicast is one-to-many communication.
 A message sent can be simultaneously
received by a group of hosts.
 Special type of Class-D IP addresses,
starting with 1110, are reserved as
multicast addresses.
Address Resolution Protocol
 Address Resolution Protocol is used to
translate 32 bits IP addresses to 48 bits
Ethernet addresses.
 A host’s physical address is determined by
broadcasting its IP address to all machines.
 The machine with matching IP address, in
broadcast message, sends its hardware
address to the machine originating
broadcast.
ARP Operation

Give me MAC address of 129.1.1.4 Here is my MAC address

129.1.1.1 129.1.1.4

ARP Request Request That’s


Response Ignored Ignored Me
Accepted
129.1.1.2 129.1.1.3
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol

 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol is


used to get the 32 bits Source IP
address, knowing the 48 bits Hardware
address.
 It is reverse of ARP, hence named
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
 A diskless workstation broadcasts
RARP-Request to find its IP Address at
the time of boot up.
RARP Operation
Give me my IP address RARP Response

Diskless
work
station RARP
Server
08-00-39-00-2F-AB
223.1.2.1 223.1.2.3
08-00-39-00-2F-C3 223.1.2.2 08-00-10-99-AC-54
08-00-5A-21-A7-22
IPv4 Address
32 Bits
Network Host

8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits

172 . 16 . 122 . 204


 In decimal the address range is 0.0.0.0
to 255.255.255.255
 The IP address is of the form
<networkID,hostID>
IPv4 Address Classes

Class-A: N H H H

Class-B: N N H H

Class-C: N N N H

Class-D: For Multicast

Class-E: For Research

Present day Internet does not use Class full addressing, Instead
Classless addressing is used.
Identifying a class of address

Address Identifier Network Address Host Address

A 0 7 bits Network Address 24 bits Host Address

B 10 14 bits Network Address 16 bits Host Address

C 110 21 bits Network Address 8 bits Host Address

D 1110 Multicast address (224.0.0.0-239.255.255.255)

E 1111 Reserved for future use


Class-A address (Networks)

0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh


Network Host

0 7 bits Network Address 24 bits Host Address

 Number of Networks = 27 i.e.128 (0-127)


 Network ID ‘0’ is used for default root.
 Network ID ‘127’ is reserved for loop back and is used for
internal testing.
 Number of Networks = 126
 Network IDs = 1-126
Class-A address (Hosts)

0nnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh


Network Host

0 7 bits Network Address 24 bits Host Address

 Number of Hosts=224=16777216
 No Host ID can have all zeros
i.e. 0.0.0 and specifies network address.
 No Host ID can have all ones
i.e. 255.255.255 and specifies the broadcast address.
 Number of Hosts per network= 224 -2=16777214
IPv4 address

•All 0s in the host ID indicates the network itself.


•All 1s in the host ID indicates the broadcast address.

203.251.7.0 168.126.0.0

203.251.7.255 168.126.255.255

203.251.7.00000000 168.126.00000000.00000000
203.251.7.11111111 168.126.11111111.11111111
Class-B address

10nnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh hhhhhhhh


Network Host

10 14 bits Network Address 16 bits Host Address

 Number of Networks = 214 i.e.16384


 Number of Hosts = 216 i.e. 65,536 (0-65,535)
 No Host ID can have all zeros
i.e. 0.0 and specifies network address.
 No Host ID can have all ones
i.e. 255.255 and specifies the broadcast address.
 Number of Hosts per network= 216 -2=65534
Class-C address

110nnnnn nnnnnnnn nnnnnnnn hhhhhhhh


Network Host

110 21 bits Network Address 8 bits Host Address

 Number of Networks = 221 i.e. 2097152


 Number of Hosts = 28 i.e. 256 (0-255)
 No Host ID can have all zeros
i.e. 00000000 and specifies network address.
 No Host ID can have all ones
i.e. 11111111 and specifies the broadcast address.
 Number of Hosts = 28-2 = 254
Class-D & E addresses

1110 Multicast address (224.0.0.0-239.255.255.255)

 Class D are special addresses are known as multicast


addresses
 This address is assigned to a group of networks and not
to represent a unique address
 This address is used to send IP datagrams to a group but
not to all the hosts on the network
 This address is also used to address router update
messages

1111 Reserved (240.0.0.0-255.255.255.255)


Private Address Space
 IANA has reserved the following three blocks of the IP
address space for private internets (RFC 1918):
 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8 prefix)
 24-bit block
 Complete class-A network number
 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/12 prefix)
 172.0001/0000.0.0-172.0001/1111.255.255
 20-bit block
 Set of 16 contiguous class-B network numbers
 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/16 prefix)
 16-bit block
 Set of 256 contiguous class-C network numbers
Subnetting
 Chopping up of a network into a number of smaller
networks is called subnetting.
 Allows to assign some of the bits, normally used by the
host portion of the address, to the network portion of the
address.
 The format of subnetted IP address would be <network
number, subnet number, host number>
 Efficiently uses the full network address.
 Subnet is a real network under a network.
 Any of the classes can be subnetted.