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THE NATURE OF CONFLICT

CONFLICT
may be defined as any
situation in which
incompatible goals,
attitudes, emotions
or behaviors lead to
disagreement or
opposition between two or
more parties.
THE NATURE OF CONFLICT
Constructive Conflict
Constructive conflict is a healthy, constructive
disagreement between two or more people.

It can benefit the organization by means of the following:


1. the production of new ideas, learning and growth among individuals;
2. people engaged in constructive conflicts develop a better
awareness of themselves and others;
3. working relationship are improved when two parties work
through their disagreement;
4. morale is improved when tensions are released and
problems solved in working together;
5. constructive conflict can lead by innovation and positive
change for the organization; and
6. increased productivity may be expected
THE NATURE OF CONFLICT
Destructive Conflict
Destructive conflict is an unhealthy, destructive
disagreement between two or more people.
LEVELS OF CONFLICT

1
Intrapersonal Conflict
2
Interpersonal Conflict
3
Intergroup Conflict
4
Interorganizational Conflict
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
1
Intrapersonal Conflict
Intrapersonal conflict is that kind of conflict that a person faces
internally, as when an individual experiences personal frustration,
anxiety, and stress.

• Approach-approach
1 Occurs when an individual
must choose between two
positive and equally
attractive alternatives.
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
1
Intrapersonal Conflict
Intrapersonal conflict is that kind of conflict that a person faces
internally, as when an individual experiences personal frustration,
anxiety, and stress.

• Approach-approach
1

• Avoidance-avoidance
2 Occurs when an individual
must choose between two
negative or equally
unattractive alternatives.
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
1
Intrapersonal Conflict
Intrapersonal conflict is that kind of conflict that a person faces
internally, as when an individual experiences personal frustration,
anxiety, and stress.

• Approach-approach
1

• Avoidance-avoidance
Occurs when a person
2 must decide to do
something that has
• Approach-avoidance positive and negative
consequences.
3
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
2
Interpersonal Conflict
Interpersonal conflict is that type of conflict that occurs between two
or more individuals who are in opposition to one another.

Classified into three sub-types:

•Substantive conflict Occurs when there is


1 fundamental
disagreement over ends
or goals to be pursued
and the means for their
accomplishments.
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
2
Interpersonal Conflict
Interpersonal conflict is that type of conflict that occurs between two
or more individuals who are in opposition to one another.

Classified into three sub-types:

•Substantive conflict
1

•Emotional conflict This type of conflict


2 involves interpersonal
difficulties that arise over
feelings or anger,
mistrust, dislike, fear,
resentment, and the like.
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
2
Interpersonal Conflict
Interpersonal conflict is that type of conflict that occurs between two
or more individuals who are in opposition to one another.

Classified into three sub-types:

•Substantive conflict
1

•Emotional conflict
2 This type is a combination
of the two types cited
above.
•Substantive and
emotional conflict
3
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
3
Intergroup Conflict

This is a conflict that occurs among groups in an


organization is referred to as intergroup conflict.
This type of conflict may also be sub-classified as
either substantive, emotional, or both.
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
4
Interorganizational Conflict

Interorganizational conflict is that type of conflict


that occurs between organizations. It is most
commonly referred to the competition and rivalry
among firms operating in the same markets.
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
If conflict is to be managed effectively, one should
understand its many sources.

Broad categories of conflicts:

•Substantive conflict
1

•Emotional conflict
2
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
Structural Factors
The sources of conflict may be attributed to structural
factors which refer to the nature of the organization
and the way in which work is organized.

Structural factors:

1 Specialization

2 Interdependence

3 Common Resources
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
Structural Factors
4 Goal Difference

5 Authority Relationship

6 Status Inconsistencies

7 Jurisdictional Ambiguities
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
Personal Factors
Personal factors comprise another broad category of
the causes of conflict

Personal factors:

1 Skills and abilities

2 Personalities
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
Personal Factors
3 Perceptions

4 Values and ethics

5 Emotions

6 Communication barriers
Conflict-causing personalities may be
described as follow:
1 The Aggressor
The type of person who is a verbal bully and who is
2 likely to shout, thump the table, or point the finger in
The Passive Aggressor
order to emphasize his point.

He or she is that person who manages


3 The Chronic Absentee
the block at every turn.

This person makes repeated absences from work.


4 The person
This person who critical
is always makes too manypeople
of other errors and
their achievements.

5 The Negative Person


Conflict-causing personalities may be
described as follow:
6 The Chatterbox
This person is one who often come into a workplace,
full of gossip or inconsequential news, and distract
7 The Do-Nothing Person
or disrupt workers from their production activities.

This person
His feeling is does not
of resentment is awant to of
result doany
anything
or all
8 TheheUnreliable
of the because
following: Person
or she is sacred of making a
a. Personal dislike of amistake.
certain person
b. Bigotry(prejudice against a particular race
or culture
This person is wants to do liked by other and
9 c. Prejudice The
against
because Time-Waster
women
of this, he agrees to do what
d. Prejudice against
whatyounger
everyone people
ask.

This is the person who thinks company time


10 can beThespentResentful Person
for his own personal benefits.
Antecedent
conditions The Stages of Conflict
Perceived Felt
conflict conflict

Manifest
conflict

Conflict Conflict
resolution suppression

Conflict
aftermath
STAGES OF CONFLICT
There are various
technique used in
1 Antecedent Conditions
resolving conflicts A superficial and
1. Problem solving temporary form of resolving
2. Superordinate goals conflict.
2
3. Expansion Perceived
of resources and Felt Conflicts
Suppressing conflict take
4. Smoothing the following forms:
5.Compromise 1. Avoidance
6. Altering 2. Authoritative command
3 theManifest
structural Conflict
variables
refers to the awareness
is that stage of the
by one or more parties
is that stage conflict
in the conflict process
process wherein
where the
of the4existence of
Conflictparties
Resolution or Suppression
conflicting areemotional
actively involvement
engaged in
conditions that create
becomes a part of
conflict behavior.
opportunities for conflict
the conflict.
to occur
5 Conflict Aftermath
NEGOTIATION
may be defined as a process in which
two or more parties attempt to reach
an acceptable agreement in a
situation characterized by some level
of disagreement
Negotiation could be useful if the following
conditions are present:
1
There are two or more parties;

2
This is a conflict of interest between the parties

3
The parties are willing to negotiate; and

4
They prefer to work together than to fight
openly, give in, break of contact, or take the
dispute to a higher authority.
Major Negotiating Approaches

Integrative Negotiation
Distributive Bargaining  this is a negotiation
 this is that negotiation approach in which the
approach wherein the
goals of the parties are goals of the parties are
in conflict, and each not regarded as mutually
party seeks to minimize exclusive and in which
its share of the the focus is on making it
resources
possible for both sides to
achieve their objectives
The Negotiation Process
1 Preparation and Planning

2 Definition of ground rules

3 Clarification and Justification

4 Bargaining and Problem solving

5 Closure and Implementation