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SECONDWORLDWAR

(1939-1945)

Concept Lecture
TOPIC PLAN
 LECTURE # 1
Causes of WW2 (9 Causes)
Main Events of WW2 (2 Slides)

 LECTURE # 2
Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki (2 Slides)
Consequences of WW2 (15 Slides)
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(1) Militant Nationalism:
 Injustice was done to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler & Nazi party created a feeling of narrow nationalism.
 The Fascist Party under the leadership of Mussolini created the
feeling of militant nationalism.
 Japan believed in the policy ‘Asia for Asians’. Strong, narrow
nationalistic feeling was created in the minds of people.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(2) Imperialism:
 Germany, Japan & Italy pursued the imperialist policy.
 Germany captured Austria in 1938 and Czechoslovakia in 1939
A.D.
 Japan occupied Manchuria in 1931.
 Italy occupied Ethiopia in 1936.
 Democratic governments failed to solve the problems.
 So dictators like Hitler & Mussolini captured power.
 They followed the imperialistic policy.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(3) Alliances and Ententes (Groups):
 European nations were filled with distrust and fear though the
League of Nations was there.
 So they made secret alliances and formed groups.
 France made treaties with European countries for mutual help.
 Italy made treaties with Central European countries.
 Russia made treaties with Germany, Turkey & Iran.
 Thus, Europe was divided into three groups led by France,
Italy & Russia.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(4) The Arms Race:
 Long discussions for disarmament held at the table of League
of Nations were proved useless.
 Dictators like Hitler & Mussolini started piling up of weapons,
as they wanted to increase glory of their countries.
 So other nations of Europe also started piling up of weapons.
 America, Japan & England also joined in this arms race.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(5) Failure of the League of Nations:
 The League of Nations failed to prevent aggressive measures
taken by the member nations.
 It could do nothing when Japan captured Manchuria in 1931.
 Italy captured Abyssinia in 1936.
 Germany declared war on Austria in 1939.
 The League of Nations was rendered helpless.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
(6) The Unjust Treaty of Versailles:
 The Treaty of Versailles was harsh & humiliating.
 It was deprived of her colonies and mineral rich areas.
 Its armies were reduced in number.
 A very heavy war fine of pounds 6.6 billion imposed.
 Crush Germany economically, politically, militarily.
 Italy and Japan received fewer colonies.
 There was discontent in Germany, Italy and Japan.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD
WAR
(7) Success of Dictatorship & Failure of Democracy:
 The new Governments and Republics that emerged in several
independent states were too weak to provide a stable
government.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD
WAR
(8) Policy of Appeasement:
 As Hitler started reclaiming territories, England & France gave
several concessions to Germany as they wanted to avoid the
vagaries of another war.
CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD
WAR
(9) Need of War to Save Civilisation:
 The evil of WW2 was necessary to stop the greater evil, the
Nazis.
MAIN
EVENTS
OF
WW2
COUNTDOWN TO WW2
YEAR EVENT

1934 Austrian Chancellor murdered (Hitler ordered)

1936 Germany gained control of Austria

1938 Germany completely took over Austria

1936 Germany reoccupied Rhineland

1938 Germany gobbled Czechoslovakia (German speaking part)

1939 Germany took Prague ( Non-German speaking part of Czechoslovakia )

Sept 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland, England issued ultimatum to withdraw

Sept 3, 1939 Britain & France declared war on Germany


MAIN EVENTS OF THE WW2 IN
1941
YEAR EVENT

By 1941 Axis conqueredYugoslavia, Albania and Greece

1941 Axis persuaded Romania, Hungary & Bulgaria to assist them

1941 Germany invaded Soviet Union

1941 Japan over ran China & attacked Pearl Harbour (US)

1941 Germany & Italy declared war on US

1941 Japan over ran southeast Asia & threatened Australia & India

1941 China joined Allies to fight Japan…

1941 to 1945 … and thus the war went on becoming more fierce.
END OF LECTURE # 1

HAVE A GOOD DAY


Next Lecture…
 Bombing Of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
 Consequences of WW2
BOMBING
OF
HIROSHIMA
AND
NAGASAKI
JAPAN… … Still a force
 Despite long battle, Japan was a force to reckon.
 Fanatical resistance of Japanese military.
 Civilians trained in use of variety of weapons.
 1600 Kamikaze planes to combat American attack.
 Suicide Air Corps jumped at the opportunity.
To Bomb… …Or not to Bomb
 Harry Truman, American President, started thinking whether to use the bomb or not.
 If bomb used : will kill thousands of innocent civilians
 If not used and instead invade Japan by land : stretch the war to a long time costing
more cost & lives.
 After much debate, decision to bomb taken.
 Before dropping, American planes dropped leaflets of warning govt. to end war.
 6th August 1945, bomb dropped on Hiroshima destroying half city & killing 80000
people.
 Despite this, Japanese refused to surrender.
 So, on 9th August 1945, another bomb dropped on Nagasaki destroying half the city &
killing 40000 people.
 On 2nd September 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally , signed armistice.
CONSEQUENCE
S OF THE WAR
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(1) LOSS OF HUMAN LIVES:
 Approximately 2.5 crore soldiers were killed & 3.5 crore
wounded.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(2) COST OF THE WAR:
 Billions of dollars were spent on this war.
 Property worth much more than that was destroyed.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(3) WEAKENED ECONOMY:
 The economies of the nations which participated in the war
were shattered.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(4) AMERICA STRENGTHENED:
 America had helped the Allies with money, men and material
during the war.
 American influence on the European nations increased.
 It emerged as a Super Power.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(5) DIVIDED GERMANY:
 Germany was divided into administrative zones:
1. East Germany (German Democratic Republic) was placed
under Soviet Union. (Capital-Berlin)
2. West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) was
administered by UK, France & US (Capital-Bonn)
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(6) JAPAN TAMED:
 A Parliamentary Democracy was set up in Japan.
 The emperor of Japan was the constitutional head of the govt.
 The Japanese govt. had to consult American while forming the
political, administrative and economic policies.
 All lands acquired by Japan since 1895 AD were taken away.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(7) REPARATION COSTS:
 The defeated nations had to pay heavy war fines ranging from
ten to thirty crore dollars.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(8) COLONIES STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE:
 Nationalistic feelings became strong in the colonies of England
& France.
 England & France had become weak.
 So countries like India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indo- China,
Indonesia, Malaya & African countries became independent.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(9) EMERGENCE OF SUPER POWERS:
 The world was divided into two power blocs, one under the
leadership of America and other under the leadership of
Russia.
 As there were fundamental difference, Russia & America could
not agree on problems like future of Berlin disarmament and
aid to be given to underdeveloped countries.
 So a situation of ‘Cold War’ arose between two power blocs.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(10) EUROPE SUFFERED:
 European countries suffered the most.
 They faced starvation.
 Production was reduced to 66%.
 There was price-rise.
 People had to pay heavy taxes after WW2.
 Steps like rationing were introduced.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(11) REHABILITATION PROGRAMME:
 Millions of uprooted citizens, people fleeing invading armies,
POW, survivors of Concentration camps & Slave labour camps
were resettled by United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation
Administration (UNRRA).
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(12) UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION FORMED:
 It aimed at international peace and solve problems by
international cooperation instead of fighting.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(13) ADVENT OF NUCLEAR AGE:
 US only knew how to build the atomic bomb. But the Cold
War led Soviet Union to develop.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(14) TRADE AND COMMERCE:
 International trade was badly hit with trade embargoes and
blockades.
 Trade grew after WW 2 as countries began to rebuild their
economies.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR
(15) SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
 Shortage of rubber (Malaya) & silk (China) because of Japanese
Dominion.
 It led to the development of synthetic rubber, plastics, nylon &
rayon for making things like parachutes, food packaging etc.
END OF LECTURE # 2 & TOPIC
HAVE A GOOD DAY

Please read other reference books for enriched knowledge.