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LINGUA INGLESA 3 CHAPTER 4

2016 / 2017
INTRODUCING YOURSELF
My name is Mabel Walsh. I was born in London,
England. I was brought up and educated in West
London, and I studied at London University. I have
travelled to many countries, mostly in Europe. I
have worked as a teacher in England, France and
Spain, but I have also done some other jobs.
I have quite a large family, most of which is in France
and Spain, though some cousins, nieces and
nephews live in England.
HOW YOU HAVE LEARNT ENGLISH
• How have you learnt English so far? (in the
classroom; with friends; with native speakers; by
travelling abroad)
• What do you do best… and worst? (everyday
conversation; writing; reading; listening)
• Has your English learning prepared you for your
needs? (Have you learnt grammar and was it
useful? Has reading / listening comprehension
helped? How many times have you spoken English
in class / outside class? Have you written a lot of
English? Is writing useful for your needs?)
MY MOTIVATION(S) FOR LEARNING ENGLISH
• Intrinsic motivation: I like the sound of English. I am
interested in the English language. I am interested in
English literature. It’s quite easy to learn. It’s fun to
learn a language.
• Extrinsic motivation: I think English will help me get a
better job. English is the language of the media / the
Internet / science and technology. English is the world
language. I want to pass the exam.
• What is your motivation in learning English?
LINGUA INGLESA 3
NO GAIN WITHOUT PAIN
• Motivation
• To have everything you
want • To take advantage of /
seize / grasp an
• To set yourself a target opportunity
• To achieve your aims • To improve yourself
• To be a perfectionist • To be suited for a job /
• To fulfil your potential task
• To overcome setbacks • To take inspiration from
• To be stuck in a routine someone
• To rely on your intuition
• To struggle to succeed
LINGUA INGLESA 3
NO GAIN WITHOUT PAIN
• Ask your partner (s) questions based on the
expressions on the previous slide:
• Do you (often, sometimes, etc) …?
• Have you (ever) …?
• Are you …?
• Why / When …?
• How often …?
LINGUA INGLESA 3
NO GAIN WITHOUT PAIN
• WRITE: What 4 qualities do you need to be
successful? (eg ambition)
• WRITE: 4 sentences about yourself and
motivation / success and read them to your
partner. (use expressions from previous slides
in different tenses)
LISTENING EXERCISE p26 of Maximiser
http://www.english.com/goldadvanced/goldadv
anced.html?page=maximiser
• TRACK 7: introductory vocabulary
Impetus; honesty; in a rut; suited to something;
creativity; start from scratch.
Do this listening exercise at home.
VERB PATTERNS: -ING / INFINITIVE (p27)
Are the verbs in the opposite column followed

by the infinitive or the “-ing” form?

Good at … (swim) Do Grammar Exercises 1 and 2 in your book.


Fail … (attend) Discuss the following with your partner using
Need … (work)
some of the verbs():
Force someone … (study)

Prevent someone … (enjoy) 1. How are you going to turn your dreams

Attempt … (succeed) into reality?


Leave someone … (feel tired)
2. What ambitions have you fulfilled so far?
Consider … (wait)

Keep on … (try)
3. How do you feel about leaving your

Wish … (fly) “comfort zone” (family, town, friends)?


LISTENING
a) Why might these things in the diagram cause people to give up a sport or
hobby? (CB p43; Track 14)
b) Which of these five factors do they mention?
http://www.english.com/goldadvanced/goldadvanced.html?page=class_audio
c) Do you agree with Jan and Marisol’s opinions?

Lack of
confidence

Lack of
Lack of time
facilities

Lack of Lack of
ability money
(1) SPEAKING TEST(p30): https://www.youtube.com/embed/ZigEqEEPU-o
a) Look at the exam task and listen to two candidates doing the first part
of the task. “Talk to each other about why it can be difficult to succeed
in these areas of life”
b) Which two points do they discuss?

Why can it be Education


difficult to
succeed in Work
these areas of
life?

Sport Relationships

Being a
parent
(2) SPEAKING TEST(p30): a) Talk to each other about why it can be
difficult to succeed in these areas of life (3 minutes)
b)Now you have about one minute to decide which two areas you think
it is most rewarding to succeed in.

Education
Why can it be
difficult to
succeed in these Work
areas of life?

Sport Relationships

Being a
parent
(3) SPEAKING TEST(p30): Listen again and
complete the sentences.
1. That’s very …
2. It’s … compatibility really.
3. … that a lot of relationships fail because …
4. … succeeding in education?
5. That … you don’t concentrate enough on your work.
6. A(n) … is my brother.

Match these sentences (above) with their functions (A-F)


A) Giving an example.
B) Making a suggestion
C) Giving an opinion
D) Giving a consequence
E) Giving a generalisation
F) Expressing agreement
DOUBLING CONSONANTS in –ED / -ING, COMPARATIVES / SUPERLATIVES (1):
put - putting, big-bigger, stop-stopped, fat- fatten, run - running, thin - thinner, sit -
sitting, get - getting, stop-stopping, hot-hotter, swim - swimming...

We add -ing to a verb to form its present participle, and -ed to regular verbs to form
the past simple. We sometimes double the last letter of the verb, as in these
examples:
stop ⇒ stopped, stopping
stoped
stoping
• refer ⇒ referred, referring (STRESS ON FINAL SYLLABLE: also forget, prefer, begin,
regret, occur, forbid, commit)
refered
refering
Sometimes, however, we don’t double the last letter, as with the verb visit:
• visit ⇒ visited, visiting (STRESS ON FIRST SYLLABLE: also budget, deliver, )
visitted
visitting

THIS VIDEO WILL HELP YOU: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akBxfirtWxQ


(6:37)
DOUBLING CONSONANTS in –ED / -ING, COMPARATIVES / SUPERLATIVES (2):

• PAN (A is in a closed syllable so the pronunciation


is /æ/)
• PANE (A is in an open syllable so the pronunciation
is /eɪ/)
• This is the reason why we double the final consonant of
a word when adding an ending which begins with a
vowel, because if we don't double that final consonant,
according to this rule, the pronunciation would be
different:
• FAT /fæt/ FAT (closed syllable: )
FATTER /’fætə/ FAT-TER ( closed syllable: )
But if we didn't double the final consonant we would
say: FATER /’feɪtə/ FA-TER (open syllable: )
DOUBLING CONSONANTS in –ED / -ING, COMPARATIVES / SUPERLATIVES (3):

• Something similar happens with all the vowels:


• Short vowel: them /e/ gemmed
• Long: theme /i:/ themed
• Short vowel: fin / ɪ / finned
• Long (diphthong): fine / aɪ / fining
• Short vowel: con /ɒ/ conning
• Long (diphthong): cone /əʊ/ coned
• Short vowel: fun / ʌ / funny
• Long (diphthong): fume /ju:/ fuming

• Now let's have a look at some examples to see this rule work:
• LISTEN TO ME AND WRITE DOWN THE WORD YOU THINK YOU
HEAR (SEE WORD FILE LINGUA3 DOUBLING CONSONANTS)
DOUBLING CONSONANTS (4):
• tape / eɪ /
• tap / æ /
• mating / eɪ /
• matting / æ /
• pate / eɪ /
• pat / æ /
• gated / eɪ /
• striped / aɪ /
• stripped / ɪ /
• felling / e /
• filing / aɪ /
• filling / ɪ /
DOUBLING CONSONANTS (5):
• running / ʌ /
• gumming / ʌ /
• roving / əʊ /
• jobbing / ɒ /
• lune /u:/
• bun / ʌ /
• hemming / e /
• boding / əʊ /
• prodding / ɒ /
• mode / əʊ /
• mod / ɒ /
• licking / ɪ /
• liking/ aɪ /
VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE OR “-ING” WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS (1)
+ INF = LOOKING TO THE FUTURE / + “-ING” LOOKING TO THE PAST.

STOP: She stopped to look at the shop windows.


I stopped playing basketball years ago.
REGRET: I regret to tell you that your grandfather has
passed away.
He regrets not telling her that he loved her.
REMEMBER: Remember to unplug the television.
I remember falling off my bike when I was a boy.
FORGET: He forgot to look right when he crossed the
road so he was run over.
I’ll never forget bungee-jumping for the first time!
STOP, REGRET, REMEMBER, FORGET (tell your partner)
1. What have you stopped doing recently?
2. What did you stop to do when you were walking
along the High Street?
3. What do you regret (not) doing when you were a
child?
4. What might you tell a friend whose pet has died?
(regret + to)
5. What advice would you give to someone who is
going on holiday soon? (Don’t forget + to)
6. What did you remember to do this morning?
7. Close your eyes and think of the first thing you
remember doing when you were very young?
VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE OR “-ING” WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS (2)

NEED:You need to improve your appearance.


“The house needs cleaning.” (passive meaning)
TRY: You have failed the essay-writing task: try to do it
better next time. (Sp = intentar)
I have a headache.” “Try taking an aspirin.” “My car won’t
start.” “Try pushing it down the hill.” (Sp = probar)
MEAN: I meant to phone you but I forgot. (=intended)
Getting a promotion means taking more responsibility. (=
involves / implies)
GO ON: The world champion went to win the Olympics. (=
she did it afterwards)
Go on reading please. (= continue from where you left it)
NEED, TRY, MEAN, GO ON (tell your partner)
1. What will you go on to do after you’ve finished
your degree?
2. What did your friend go on doing even when you
asked him / her to stop?
3. What does your friend mean to do next summer?
4. If you are going to climb Everest, what does it
mean doing?
5. What do you advise your friend if their cigarette
lighter doesn’t work? (try + -ing)
6. What did the teacher say to the student who
always came late? (try + to)
HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY WITH AN ARGUMENT AGAINST THE CLOCK (1)
• IT IS NOT THE PERSON WHO KNOWS MOST ENGLISH WHO GETS
THE BEST MARK, BUT THE ONE WHO USES HER / HIS KNOWLEDGE
MOST EFFECTIVELY.
• READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY AND DO WHAT THEY ASK.
• BRAINSTORM IDEAS / VOCABULARY / STRUCTURE AND
CALCULATE THE TIME FOR ABOUT 5-10 MINUTES. BE PATIENT.
DON’T RUSH INTO WRITING THE ESSAY.
• USE PARAGRAPHS (5 paragraphs?)
• COMPLEXITY IS BETTER THAN SIMPLIOCITY (TRY TO IMPRESS
WITH YOUR VOCABULARY AND SYNTAX (BUT NOT SACRIFICING
ACCURACY).
• STYLE: AVOID CONTRACTIONS AND COLLOQUIAL INFORMAL
LANGUAGE (“GET” or TOO MANY PHRASAL VERBS).
HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY WITH AN ARGUMENT AGAINST THE CLOCK (2)
• DO NOT WRITE A ROUGH DRAFT UNLESS YOU ARE
SURE YOU HAVE TIME. ASK FOR EXTRA PAGES IF
NECESSARY
• IF YOU HAVE TIME AT THE END, SPEND IT READING
OVER WHAT YOU HAVE DONE, PERHAPS ALOUD.
(WHISPERING!)
• WRITE NO LESS THAN THE NUMBER OF WORDS
REQUIRED (220), BUT ONLY 10 OR 20 MORE, AT MOST.
• YOUR HANDWRITING SHOULD NOT BE TOO SMALL.
• LEAVE A MARGIN AND / OR SUFFICIENT SPACE
BETWEEN THE LINES TO MAKE CORRECTIONS.
HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY WITH AN ARGUMENT (3)
• The five-paragraph essay
• A common method for writing an argumentative
essay is the five-paragraph approach. The method
consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three
body paragraphs that may include discussion of
opposing views and (c) a conclusion.
INTRODUCTION
Interesting first sentence: “Many people argue that
motivation is the most important thing in learning,
but I disagree.”

I will first consider… ; I will begin by…; First of all … ;


Secondly I will …; Then I will / I will then…; I will
then go on to …; Lastly / Finally I will…
MAIN BODY
• 3 paragraphs on different topics within the argument. You
should state more than one opinion.
• Developing the argument: Also / likewise / moreover… ; In
fact… ; Furthermore… ; For this reason… ; Similarly… ;
Likewise…
• Transitional expressions: Moving on to X…; As far as X is
concerned…
• Giving examples: For instance / For example…; …such as …
• Contrasting: On the other hand…, By contrast…; Having
said that…; However; …whereas...;
• Concluding your argument: Finally,…; To end with,…;
CONCLUSIONS
• Be sure to review your main points and state the
conclusion to which you arrived. But make sure not
to introduce any new information in the conclusion.
• Useful language: Summing up, …; I have shown
that…; We have seen that…;
ESSAY REVIEW: SPELL THESE WORDS (2015 /
2016)
1. ˈfɪzɪklɪ 9. ˈpeɪʃns
2. əˈprəʊprɪət 10. əˈkeɪʒn
3. əˈkʌstəmd 11. tʃuːz
4. taɪtl 12. streŋθ
5. əˈbɪlətiz 13. ˈkwɒlətɪ
6. ˈbɪznɪs 14. səkˈsɛs
7. səkˈsɛsfəl 15. səkˈsiːd
8. prəˈfeʃnəl
ESSAY REVIEW: THE “-EN” FAMILY
• Strong; strength; strengthen (Adj; N; Vb)
• Deep; depth; deepen
• High; height; heighten
• Wide; width; widen
• Long; length; lengthen
• Broad; breadth; broaden
• Others are: weaken; straighten; soften; harden;
tighten; loosen; ripen; lessen.
ESSAY REVIEW: 2015 / 2016
• In case of ≠ in the event of
• Keeps it in chains in case it tries to escape. (por si acaso)
• In the event of fire, do not use the lift. (en caso de incendio)
• Assure ≠ ensure ≠ insure
• I assure you I turned off the oven.
• We ensured that there would be enough food.
• I insured my house for a million dollars.
• That ≠ what ≠ which
• I gave him the gift that / which he wanted. (lo cual)
• What he wanted was a car. (lo que)
• Everyday (adj) ≠ every day (adv)
• My everyday routine starts at 7 a.m.
• I start work every day at 7 a.m.
• Job (countable; puesto de trabajo) ≠ work (non-count)
• He can’t find work / he can’t find a job.
ESSAY REVIEW: SPELL THESE WORDS (2016 / 2017)

1. əˈbɪlətɪz 11. laɪf


2. səkˈsɛsfəl 12. laɪvz
3. prəˈfeʃnəl 13. lɪvz
4. səkˈsɛs 14. əˈkwaɪə
5. səkˈsiːd 15. ˈdɪfɪkʊltɪz
6. saɪˈkɒlədʒɪ 16. pəˈtenʃəl
7. ˈɛksələnt 17. bɪ ˈliːf
8. ˈmɪzrəbəl 18. bɪ ˈliːv
9. luːz 19. nɪˈsɛsətɪ
10. luːs 20. dɪsəˈpɒɪtɪd
21. ˈkwɒlətɪz
ESSAY REVIEW: 2016 / 2017 (1)
• *to keep in mind / *to have in mind / to bear in mind.
• *I am agree / I agree  / I do not agree 
• *It doesn’t mind / It doesn’t matter 
• I don’t mind  / *I don’t matter
• *It is good the idea. It is good to see you  / It is good
that you have come. 
• I’d like to know… / I don’t know… / I think about… / He
asked me… / It would be interesting to find out… / I’m
going to tell you …
+ …what the time is / *…what is the time.
+ …what these things are  / *…what are these things.
ESSAY REVIEW: 2016 / 2017 (2)
• Everyday (adj) ≠ every day (adv)
My everyday routine starts at 7 a.m. 
I start work every day at 7 a.m. 
• Job (countable; puesto de trabajo) ≠ work (non-
count)
He can’t find work  / he can’t find a job. 
Everybody has his / her / their idea about what
success is… 
• Remark ≠ stress / underline 
• Put effort into something / take into account. 
ESSAY REVIEW: 2016 / 2017 (3)
• *get. You can achieve success. 
• *kids. They know how to bring up their children. 
• *expose my reasons (explain / list);
• *my desire is to be a teacher. (wish)
• mustn’t ≠ don’t have to;
• *to can / to be able to 
• even so ≠ even though / even if
• hardworking (adj) hard work (noun)
ESSAY REVIEW: 2016 / 2017 (4)
1. A lot of … (mothers / mums) just don’t know how to bring
up their… (kids/children) .
2. I would like to … my reasons for not coming to class. Please
… in mind that I am a student of Galego.
3. I can’t come to class … (every day / everyday); please … …
account that I was ill.
4. Students … copy during exams.
5. My … is to become a teacher when I finish.
6. Even … you work hard, you may not … success.
7. She earnt a lot of money; even …, she was unhappy with her
… (job/work?).
8. We … take computers to all the classes, because it’s
unnecessary. I … with you.
9. Can you tell me whose (are these clothes / these clothes
are)?
10. A. *”It was bad the concert”. B. “It doesn’t mind / matter.”
TRANSLATE
1. Ten en cuenta que no debes dormir demasiado.
2. Nos aseguró que se había acordado de apagar las
luces.
3. Me gustaría saber lo que ella dijo acerca de mí.
4. Es deliciosa esta paella.
5. El futbolista aseguró sus piernas por un millón de
dólares.
6. Averiguaré cómo ensanchar la acera.
7. No importa cuánto cuesta: quiero hacer más fácil
mi vida diaria.
8. ¿Sabes a qué hora va a venir el profesor?
SUCCESSFUL AND INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE
• WATCH THE VIDEO. WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE
LIKE THEM?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpztCAezyqw
• IS THERE ANYTHING THEY HAVE IN COMMON?
• Exam maximiser pp 30 – 31. Do the activities
and write an essay in class.
RECORD YOURSELF!
http://vocaroo.com/
This will help you to hear your English and
perhaps correct your pronunciation mistakes.