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# Practical Research 2:

Research

## VON CHRISTOPHER G. CHUA

von_christopher_chua@dlsu.edu.ph
The Nature of Inquiry and Research
Our Learning Goals:
After this discussion, you are expected to have the ability to…
1. describe characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of
quantitative research;
2. differentiate kinds of variables according to scales of measure;
and
3. contrast kinds of quantitative research.

This slideshow presentation will be made available through the trainer’s website:
mathbychua.weebly.com.
1. How would you define practical
research?
2. Why is it important for a SHS student
to know the process of conducting
research?
3. Give some examples of research
opportunities or topics relevant to
back… strand.
Research is a systematic process of
collecting, analyzing, and interpreting
information in order to increase our
which we are interested or concerned
(Leedy & Ormrod, 2013).
Defining
Research
works with a unbiased; all
system or angles presented
method

## Research is a systematic and objective

creation of knowledge.
(Creswell, 2013) a creative
process
Present
the Collect data
to the
Defining question
Pose a
Research question

Improve practice.

Inform policies

## Solve problems, not emergencies.

Why DO
RESEARCH?
In comparison to qualitative research.

## single reality vs. multiple realities

establishing relationships and explaining
cause of correlation vs. understanding
situations in a participant’s perspective
pre-established design vs. emerging
design
detached researcher vs. immersed
Quantitativ researcher

## e Research to generalize vs. to assess applicability

Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009
Quantitive Research
Its STRENGTHS and
WEAKNESSES
A variable varies and has values. The values of
variables under study are the research data.

## Are these variables? color, chair, shape of table,

tweet, shirt style.

## How are these different?

Quantitative and qualitative variables
Discrete and continuous variables

Variables
ACTIVITY TWO • Daily Allowance

## Which goes • Availability of Internet

Connection
where? •

Time
Temperature
• Test Score
• Position in Student Government
• Cellphone Brand
• Height
• Cellphone number
• Class rank in the honor roll

## Classify the variables at the right based on their “likelihood” to the

three others in the color-coded columns.
A variable varies and has values. The values of
variables under study are the research data.

## Are these variables? chair, shape of table, tweet,

shirt style. Classifying Variables
according to Scales of
Measure

Variables ORDINAL
NOMINAL
RATIO
INTERVAL
EQUAL
IDENTITY MAGNITUDE ABSOLUTE ZERO
INTERVALS
Quantitative Research Designs

Manipulating
Studying Correla Experi conditions and
relationships tional mental studying effects
Non-
experimental
research
Descrip
Describing tive
characteristics
Quantitative Research Designs
Descriptive Examples:
What are the sleeping habits
A cross-sectional survey Research of SHS students in DLSAU?
collects information from
a sample coming from Sometimes called survey What factors affected the
various groups that has research, it aims to SHS track choice of SHS
been drawn from a describe systematically the students?
predetermined facts and characteristics of
population. a given population or area Your Turn
of interest, factually and Consider your chosen
accurately research interest or
topic. Come up with a
research question that
falls under
descriptive research.
Quantitative Research Designs
Correlational
Explanatory Research Prediction
Examples:
research
research design design
Does wearing
seeks to school
identify
determines the variables
uniform
that
have
willany
predict
extent to which two aims to describe and an outcome
relationship
or criterion.
with
variables (or more) co- measure the degree of students’ ability to
vary. association between two or participate?
Your Turn more variables or sets of
Consider your chosen scores. Is there a relationship
research interest or between phone brand
topic. Come up with a
research question that
falls under among teens?
correlational
research.
Quantitative Research Designs
Experimental
Types
Research True experiments
Independent
EG: R O1 x O2
variable
CG: R O1 x O2
attempts to influence a
Quasi-experiments
particular variable EG: O1 x O2
Dependent CG: O1 x O2
cause-and-effect
relationships
ACTIVITY ONE • Internet availability at home and student’s
Determine the average sleeping time at night
• Social media involvement and practices of