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Practical Research 2:

The Nature of Inquiry and


Research

VON CHRISTOPHER G. CHUA


von_christopher_chua@dlsu.edu.ph
The Nature of Inquiry and Research
Our Learning Goals:
After this discussion, you are expected to have the ability to…
1. describe characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of
quantitative research;
2. differentiate kinds of variables according to scales of measure;
and
3. contrast kinds of quantitative research.

This slideshow presentation will be made available through the trainer’s website:
mathbychua.weebly.com.
Download the document to use it as reference.
1. How would you define practical
research?
2. Why is it important for a SHS student
to know the process of conducting
research?
3. Give some examples of research
opportunities or topics relevant to
Let’s look both your interests and your SHS
back… strand.
Research is a systematic process of
collecting, analyzing, and interpreting
information in order to increase our
understanding of a phenomenon about
which we are interested or concerned
(Leedy & Ormrod, 2013).
Defining
Research
works with a unbiased; all
system or angles presented
method

Research is a systematic and objective


creation of knowledge.
(Creswell, 2013) a creative
process
Present
the Collect data
answer to answer
to the
Defining question
Pose a
Research question
Add to existing knowledge.

Improve practice.

Inform policies

Solve problems, not emergencies.

Why DO
RESEARCH?
In comparison to qualitative research.

single reality vs. multiple realities


establishing relationships and explaining
cause of correlation vs. understanding
situations in a participant’s perspective
pre-established design vs. emerging
design
detached researcher vs. immersed
Quantitativ researcher

e Research to generalize vs. to assess applicability


Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009
Quantitive Research
Its STRENGTHS and
WEAKNESSES
A variable varies and has values. The values of
variables under study are the research data.

Are these variables? color, chair, shape of table,


tweet, shirt style.

How are these different?


Quantitative and qualitative variables
Discrete and continuous variables

Variables
ACTIVITY TWO • Daily Allowance

Which goes • Availability of Internet


Connection
where? •

Time
Temperature
AGE GRADE LEVEL GENDER
• Test Score
• Position in Student Government
• Cellphone Brand
• Height
• Cellphone number
• Class rank in the honor roll

Classify the variables at the right based on their “likelihood” to the


three others in the color-coded columns.
A variable varies and has values. The values of
variables under study are the research data.

Are these variables? chair, shape of table, tweet,


shirt style. Classifying Variables
according to Scales of
Measure

Variables ORDINAL
NOMINAL
RATIO
INTERVAL
EQUAL
IDENTITY MAGNITUDE ABSOLUTE ZERO
INTERVALS
Quantitative Research Designs

Manipulating
Studying Correla Experi conditions and
relationships tional mental studying effects
Non-
experimental
research
Descrip
Describing tive
characteristics
Quantitative Research Designs
Descriptive Examples:
What are the sleeping habits
A cross-sectional survey Research of SHS students in DLSAU?
collects information from
a sample coming from Sometimes called survey What factors affected the
various groups that has research, it aims to SHS track choice of SHS
been drawn from a describe systematically the students?
predetermined facts and characteristics of
population. a given population or area Your Turn
of interest, factually and Consider your chosen
accurately research interest or
topic. Come up with a
research question that
falls under
descriptive research.
Quantitative Research Designs
Correlational
Explanatory Research Prediction
Examples:
research
research design design
Does wearing
seeks to school
identify
determines the variables
uniform
that
have
willany
predict
extent to which two aims to describe and an outcome
relationship
or criterion.
with
variables (or more) co- measure the degree of students’ ability to
vary. association between two or participate?
Your Turn more variables or sets of
Consider your chosen scores. Is there a relationship
research interest or between phone brand
topic. Come up with a
and Facebook usage
research question that
falls under among teens?
correlational
research.
Quantitative Research Designs
Experimental
Types
Research True experiments
Independent
EG: R O1 x O2
variable
CG: R O1 x O2
attempts to influence a
Quasi-experiments
particular variable EG: O1 x O2
Dependent CG: O1 x O2
variable tests hypotheses about
cause-and-effect
relationships
ACTIVITY ONE • Internet availability at home and student’s
Determine the average sleeping time at night
• Social media involvement and practices of
design Grade 12 HUMSS students
• The effect of the use of <a local packaging
material> on the shelf life of a product.
• The marketability of <innovative
product> to SHS students.
• Children of single parents and their level
of Math anxiety.

As a group, decide on a researchable topic leading to a quantitative


research suited to the level of SHS students.