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and Frame

Is the internal framework of an artificial object, which

supports the object in its construction and use. In
a vehicle frame, the underpart of a motor vehicle, on
which the body is mounted; if the running gear such
as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even
the driver's seat, are
included, then the
assembly is described
as a rolling chassis.

For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of
an assembly of all the essential parts of a truck
(without the body) to be ready for operation on the
road. The design of a pleasure car chassis will be
different than one for commercial vehicles because of
the heavier loads and constant work use. Commercial
vehicle manufacturers sell "chassis only", "cowl and
chassis", as well as "chassis cab" versions that can
be outfitted with specialized bodies. These include
motor homes, fire engines, ambulances, box trucks,

Cowl And Chassis

Chassis Cab
In particular applications, such as school buses,
a government agency like National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in the U.S.
defines the design standards of chassis and
body conversions.

An armoured fighting vehicle's hull serves as the
chassis and comprises the bottom part of the AFV
that includes the tracks, engine, driver's seat, and
crew compartment. This describes the lower hull,
although common usage might include the upper
hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull
serves as a basis for platforms on tanks,
armoured personnel carriers, combat engineering
vehicles, etc.

Vehicle Frame
Is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle,
to which all other components are attached,
comparable to the skeleton of an organism. Since
the 1930s, virtually every car had a structural
frame, separate from its body. This construction
design is known as body-on-frame. Over time,
nearly all passenger cars have migrated to
unibody construction, meaning
their chassis and bodywork
have been integrated into
one another. 8
The main functions of a frame in motor vehicles
◈ To support the vehicle's mechanical components
and body
◈ To deal with static and dynamic loads, without
undue deflection or distortion.

Types of frame according to the
◈ Ladder type frame
◈ X-Type frame
◈ Off set frame
◈ Off set with cross member frame
◈ Perimeter Frame
◈ Platform Frame

Ladder type frame

So named for its resemblance to a

ladder, the ladder frame is one of the
simplest and oldest of all designs. It
consists of two symmetrical beams, rails,
or channels running the length of the
vehicle, and several transverse cross-
members connecting them.

X-Type Frame

This is the design used for the full-size

American models of General Motors in
the late 1950s and early 1960s in which
the rails from alongside the engine
seemed to cross in the passenger
compartment, each continuing to the
opposite end of the crossmember at the
extreme rear of the vehicle.

Perimeter Frame

Similar to a ladder frame, but the middle

sections of the frame rails sit outboard of
the front and rear rails just behind the
rocker/sill panels. This was done to allow
for a lower floor pan, especially at the
passenger footwells, to lower the
passengers' seating height and therefore
reduce the overall vehicle height in
passenger cars.

Platform Frame
This is a modification of the perimeter frame, or of
the backbone frame, in which the passenger
compartment floor, and sometimes also the
luggage compartment floor
have been integrated into
the frame as loadbearing
parts, for extra strength and rigidity. Neither floor
pieces are simply sheet metal straight off the roll,
but have been stamped with ridges and hollows
for extra strength.