• Control Loop
• The operator, valve, process, and temperature gauge
forms a control loop. Any change the operator makes to
the gas valve affects the temperature which is fed back
to the operator, thereby closing the loop.
• A PID controller has a Set Point (SP) that the operator
can set to the desired temperature. The Controller’s
Output (CO) sets the position of the control valve. And
the temperature measurement, called the Process
Variable (PV) gives the controller its muchneeded
feedback.
• When everything is up and running, the PID controller
compares the process variable to its set point and
calculates the difference between the two signals, also
called the Error (E).
Set point
Error
Output
• It is interesting to note that more than half of the
industrial controllers in use today are PID controllers or
modified PID controllers.
10
Proportional Controllers (P)
• As the gain is increased the system responds faster to
changes in setpoint but becomes progressively
underdamped and eventually unstable.
11
• The use of proportional control alone has a large
drawback – offset.
• Offset is a sustained error that cannot be eliminated by
proportional control alone. For example, let’s consider
controlling the water level in the tank in Figure 5 with a
proportionalonly controller. As long as the flow out of
the tank remains constant, the level will remain at its set
point.
• But, if the operator should increase the flow out of the tank, the
tank level will begin to decrease due to the imbalance between
inflow and outflow. While the tank level decreases, the error
increases and our proportional controller increases the controller
output proportional to this error. Consequently, the valve
controlling the flow into the tank opens wider and more water
flows into the tank.
• As the level continues to decrease, the valve continues to open
until it gets to a point where the inflow again matches the
outflow. At this point the tank level (and error) will remain
constant. Because the error remains constant our Pcontroller
will keep its output constant and the control valve will hold its
position. The system now remains at balance, but the tank level
remains below its set point. This residual sustained error is called
Offset.
Integral Control
• As long as there is an error present (process variable
not at set point), the integral control mode will
continuously increment or decrement the controller’s
output to reduce the error. Given enough time,
integral action will drive the controller output far
enough to reduce the error to zero.
Proportional Plus Integral Controllers (PI)
• Integral control describes a controller in which the
output rate of change is dependent on the magnitude of
the input.
• Specifically, a smaller amplitude input causes a slower
rate of change of the output.
16
Proportional Plus Integral Controllers (PI)
• The major advantage of integral controllers is that they have
the unique ability to return the controlled variable back to
the exact set point following a disturbance.
+
+

18
Proportional Plus Integral Control (PI)
19
The characteristics of P and I
controllers
A proportional controller (Kp) will have the effect of
reducing the rise time, but never eliminate, the steady
state error. An integral control (Ki) will have the effect of
eliminating the steadystate error, but it may make the
transient response worse
Close Loop Response Rise Time Overshoot Settling Time Steady State Error
Here,
Kp = Proportional gain.
KI = Integral gain
Derivative Control
• The derivative component causes the output to
decrease if the process variable is increasing rapidly.
+
+

24
Proportional Plus derivative Control (PD)
25
Proportional Plus derivative Control (PD)
• The higher the error signal rate of change, the sooner the final
control element is positioned to the desired value.
26
Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative Control (PID)
27
Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative Control (PID)
• Although PD control deals neatly with the overshoot and ringing
problems associated with proportional control it does not cure the
problem with the steadystate error. Fortunately it is possible to
eliminate this while using relatively low gain by adding an integral
term to the control function which becomes
28
The Characteristics of P, I, and D controllers
Small Small
Kd Decrease Decrease
Change Change
• Once P has been set to obtain a desired fast response,
the integral term is increased to stop the oscillations.
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