Sunteți pe pagina 1din 73

An Orientation on

Outcomes-Based Education Paradigm

• December 11, 2014, 9 am, Sto. Tomas, Batangas


Campus, Polytechnic University of the Philippines

• Juan C. Birion, DPA


• Dean, CAS, TCU; Chair, MPA Program, TCU;
Professorial Lecturer VI, PUP Graduate School
• Seminar Objectives:
• After attending this seminar, the participants are
expected to:
• 1) recognize the important concepts and
elements of the OBE approach;
• 2) compare the difference between the “input-
based” paradigm and the “outputs-based
paradigm;
• 3) apply the approach in the educational
activities in country’s first Polytechnic University.
Definition

Outcomes-based education is an
approach that focuses and organizes the
educational system around what is
essential for all learners to know, value,
and be able to do to achieve a desired
level of competence at the time of
graduation.
Ideal Typical Depiction of Two Education Paradigms
(Barr & Tagg, 1995)

Dimension The Instruction The Learning


(Inputs-Based) Paradigm (Outcomes-Based) Paradigm
 Provide/deliver  Produce learning
instruction  Elicit student
Mission and Purposes  Transfer knowledge discovery towards
from faculty construction of
 Offer courses and knowledge
programs  Create powerful
 Improve the quality learning
of instruction environments
 Improve the quality
of learning
Ideal Typical Depiction of Two Education Paradigms (Barr & Tagg, 1995)

Dimension The Instruction The Learning


(Inputs-Based) Paradigm (Outcomes-Based) Paradigm
 Inputs/Resources  Learning and student
 Quality of entering success outcomes
students  Quality of exiting
 Curriculum students
development, expansion  Learning technologies
Criteria for Success:
 Quantity and quality of development
Learning varies with …
resources  Quantity and quality of
 Enrolment and revenue outcomes
growth  Aggregate learning
 Quality of faculty, growth, Efficiency
instruction  Quality of learning
Dimension The Instruction The Learning
(Inputs-Based) Paradigm (Outcomes-Based) Paradigm

 Time held constant,  Learning held constant,


learning varies time varies
 50-minute lecture, 3-unit  Learning environments
 Environment ready when
course
student is
 Classes start, end at same
 Whatever learning
time
experience works
 One teacher, one classroom
 Cross
 Independent
Teaching/Learning disciplines/departments
Structures discipline/departments
 Specified learning results
 Covering material/content
 Pre-, during and post-
 End of course assessment
assessment
 Grading within classes by
 External evaluation of
instructors
learning
 Degree equals accumulated
 Degree equals
credit hours
demonstrated knowledge
and skills
Dimension The Instruction The Learning
(Inputs-Based) Paradigm (Outcomes-Based) Paradigm

 Knowledge exists in each


 Knowledge “exists out person’s mind and is
there” shaped by experience
 Knowledge comes in  Knowledge is
chunks and bits; delivered constructed, created
by instructors and gotten  Learning is a nesting and
by students interacting of
Learning Theory  Learning is cumulative frameworks
and linear  Learning is student-
 Learning is teacher- centered and controlled
centered and controlled  Learning environments
 The classroom and and learning are
learning are competitive cooperative,
and individualistic collaborative and
supportive
Dimension The Instruction The Learning
(Inputs-Based) Paradigm (Outcomes-Based) Paradigm

 Faculty are primarily  Faculty are primarily


lecturers designers of learning
 Faculty and students methods and
act independently and environments
in isolation  Faculty and students
 Teachers classify and work in teams with
sort students each other and with
Nature of Roles  Any expert can teach other staff
 Teachers develop
every student’s
competencies and
talents
 Empowering learning
is challenging and
complex
Why outcomes-based education (OBE)?

Fast technological developments lead


to frequent changes in the nature
and requirements of jobs

Thus emphasis on building learner


competencies—including learning how to
learn
It can be coupled with a robust system of
continuous quality improvement (CQI)
system.
The competitive advantage of Philippine
HEIs—and in many cases, their survival—is
premised on their ability to offer quality
degree programs that meet world-class
standards and produce graduates with
lifelong learning competencies.

These standards are in terms of the level of


competencies of students at the time of
graduation.
The HEI describe the attributes of its ideal
graduate based on its VisMis as part of its
institutional goals or outcomes, and use these
as bases for developing specific program
outcomes. Program outcomes are the sets of
measurable competencies (related
knowledge, skills, and attitudes) that all
learners are expected to demonstrate at the
time of graduation. Institutional or program
outcomes emphasize lifelong learning.
Course outcomes refer to the knowledge, values,
and skills all learners are expected to
demonstrate at the end of a course. Learning
outcomes may result from a specific lesson,
although it is sometimes used interchangeably
with course outcomes. Thus, in the hierarchy,
learning outcomes are seen as building blocks
toward course outcomes, which in turn, support
the program outcomes.
FRAMEWORK FOR OBE
Reference: CHED Handbook on OBE and Institutional Sustainability Assessment
PROGRAM OUTCOMES
The program outcomes common to all disciplines and types of schools:

• articulate and discuss the latest developments in the specific field of


practice. (PQF level 6 descriptor)

• effectively communicate orally and in writing using both English and


Filipino

• work effectively and independently in multi-disciplinary and multi-


cultural teams. (PQF level 6 descriptor)

• act in recognition of professional, social, and ethical responsibility

• preserve and promote “Filipino historical and cultural heritage” (based


on RA 7722)

Source: CHED
Some program outcomes are based on HEI type, because this
determines the focus and purpose of the HEI. For example:

• Graduates of professional institutions demonstrate a service


orientation in one’s profession

• Graduates of colleges participate in various types of


employment, development activities, and public discourses,
particularly in response to the needs of the communities one
serves

• Graduates of universities participate in the generation of new


knowledge or in research and development projects

• Graduates of State Universities and Colleges must, in addition,


have the competencies to support “national, regional and local
development plans.” (RA 7722)
Source: CHED
Other desired attributes of the HEI’s ideal
graduate could be added, based on their mission
and vision or on the core values of the institution.
For example, this could include “reflect and act in
accordance with one’s faith” for some sectarian
colleges, or “analyze and discuss different schools
of thought” for universities.

Source: CHED
ENGINEERING-WIDE DESIRED PROGRAM OUTCOMES
Engineering programs have to demonstrate that their students, after
undergoing the program, acquire:

• An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, physical, life, and


information sciences, engineering sciences appropriate to the field of
practice.
• An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze
and interpret
• An ability to recognize, formulate, and solve engineering problems.
• An understanding of the effects of engineering solutions in a
comprehensive context.
• An ability to use the techniques, skills, and engineering tools
necessary for engineering and business practice.
Source: ABET
Source: CHED
Determining Performance Indicators and Standards

Program outcomes can be broken down to component


competencies, which are actually the performance indicators
that will show a match between the desired or intended
outcomes and the design and implementation of the learning
experience.

These particular competencies will then have to be developed


in the specific courses of the program. The courses, thus, will
have specific learning outcomes that develop particular
competencies (related knowledge, skills, and attitudes).
EXAMPLE: PSYCHOLOGY
For example, a graduate of the psychology program is
expected to be able to apply psychological theories and
methods to social, organizational, or clinical contexts.

This can be broken down to specific competencies such as


the ability to:

• apply appropriate methods to identify the needs of a


particular group or situation

• use psychological theories and methods to analyze


problems and situations

• use these theories and methods to identify suitable


interventions to the situation.
Source: CHED
These competencies are developed at different levels
with different scopes, in the various courses of the
program, such as introduction to psychology, social
psychology, clinical psychology, organizational
development, research methods, etc.

Each of these courses spells out its learning outcomes,


identifying particular knowledge, skills, and attributes
pertinent to the course.

Source: CHED
For example, the Introduction to Psychology could
include in its learning outcomes the following:

• Describe the nature of psychology as a discipline;

• Discuss concepts in selected content areas of


psychology – theory and research, history of
psychology, relevant levels of analysis, overarching
themes in psychology, and ethical issues;

• Apply the concepts, language, and major theories of


the discipline to explain psychological phenomena;

• Explain major perspectives of psychology.


Source: CHED
For the course on Social Psychology, the learning
outcomes could include:

• Give examples of how the scientific method is used in


social psychology, particularly the generation of
hypotheses, evaluation of the hypothesis through
experimentation, or through observational,
correlational and survey methods;

• Discuss the major theoretical perspectives in social


psychology and the latest advances in the field;

• Apply concepts and methods to specific areas of


interest.
Source: CHED
EXAMPLE: ENGINEERING
Reference: University of Pittsburgh

An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet


desired needs
Broken down into competencies:
a. Need Recognition
b. Problem Definition
c. Planning
d. Management
e. Information Gathering
f. Idea Generation
g. Modeling
h. Feasibility
i. Evaluation
j. Selection/Decision
k. Implementation
l. Communication
m. Documentation
n. Iteration
Outcome Element: Need Recognition Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Identifies stated and unstated wants and needs that motivate the design effort; converts them
into a needs statement.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Recites definitions.
•Names established methods and lists their steps.
Comprehension •Describes differences among various methods.
•Carries out steps in a hypothetical design situation when
asked.
Application •Selects and performs appropriate method at a proper
stage of a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes perceived wants and needs to isolate the most
relevant needs.
Synthesis •Produces a clear and unambiguous needs statement in a
design project.
Evaluation •Assesses/verifies consistency of needs statement with
customer’s and societal needs.
Valuation •Accepts that design effort benefits from a clear
unambiguous needs statement
Outcome Element: Problem Definition Reference: University of Pittsburgh
Determines design objectives and functional requirements based on needs statement. Identifies constraints
on the design problem and establishes criteria for acceptability and desirability of solutions.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Recites definitions.
•Names established methods and lists their steps.
Comprehension •Describes differences among various methods.
•Carries out steps when asked.
Application •Selects and utilizes appropriate method for problem
definition.
•Successfully produces problem definition at an appropriate
stage of a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes a needs statement to isolate information pertaining
to problem definition.
Synthesis •Guides a design project by use of the produced problem
definition.
Evaluation •Evaluates adequacy and consistency of produced problem
definition with needs statement reality.
Valuation •Accepts that good problem definition assists the design
process.
Outcome Element: Planning Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Development of a design strategy, including an overall plan of attack, decomposition of design


problem into subtasks, prioritization of subtasks, establishment of timetables and milestones by
which progress may be evaluated.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Recites definitions.
•Names and lists steps in design process.
•Lists established management strategies and their elements.
Comprehension •Describes differences among various design steps.
•Carries out steps when asked.
Application •Selects and performs appropriate design stage at an
appropriate point in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes progress of design in order to revise plan as
needed.
Synthesis •Produces design strategy and uses it to guide a design
project.
Evaluation •Evaluates progress by comparing current design state to
design plan.
Valuation •Accepts that planning is important to design success.
•Supports planning efforts.
Outcome Element: Management Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Guidance of course of action during design and in response to changing conditions


Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes
Knowledge •Names project monitoring techniques.
•Lists their elements and applications.
•Lists methods to modify design plans.
Comprehension •Describes differences among various techniques.
•Modifies a given design plan for a specific situation.
Application •Selects and performs appropriate monitoring and/or
modification process during a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes progress of design in order to revise plan as
needed.
•Analyzes errors to determine proper reaction.
Synthesis •Maintains a design strategy during a design project.

Evaluation •Judges quality of monitoring.


•Judges quality of revisions to plan.
Valuation •Respects changes in original plan.
•Accepts need for changes
Outcome Element: Information Gathering Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Gathers information about the design problem, including the need for a solution, user needs
and expectations, relevant engineering fundamentals and technology and feedback from users.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Names and lists steps in information gathering.
•Lists established methods and their elements.
Comprehension •Uses specified information gathering method to research
a specified design issue.
Application •Recognizes need for information during a design project.
•Gathers information using an appropriate method.
Analysis •Analyzes information needs to determine type of
information to gather during a design project.
Synthesis •Employs gathered information in design decisions.

Evaluation •Judges quality of gathered information

Valuation •Accepts that information gathering is important to design


success.
Outcome Element: Idea Generation Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Transforms objectives/functional requirements into candidate solutions.


Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes
Knowledge •Names established idea generation methods.
•Lists their steps and attributes.
Comprehension •Describes differences among methods.
•Performs specified method in hypothetical design
situation when asked..
Application •Selects and performs appropriate idea generation
methods in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes failed candidates to suggest new candidates

Synthesis •Integrates generated ideas into design plan


•Generates ideas creatively or ad hoc where established
methods fail.
Evaluation •Judges completeness, quality of generated candidates.

Valuation •Accepts that generation of multiple alternatives is


important; respect alternate solutions
Outcome Element: Modeling Reference: University of Pittsburgh
Employs models/ representations/simulations of the physical world to provide information for design
decisions.
Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes
Knowledge •Recites definitions.
•Names and lists modeling and simulation methods and
representation techniques, their elements and
applicability.
Comprehension •Describes differences among methods.
•Uses a specified representation to investigate a given
design issue.
•Carries out steps of a specified method when asked.
Application •Selects and performs model or represent-action at an
appropriate point in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes output of model or representation.

Synthesis •Incorporates output of model into the design project.

Evaluation •Evaluates quality of model, simulation, or representation


and its output.
Valuation •Accepts that modeling is important to design success.
Outcome Element: Feasibility Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Evaluates feasibility of alternatives or proposed solutions by considering stated constraints as


well as implied constraints such as manufacturability, cost, compatibility.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Recites definition of feasibility.
•Names and lists steps in feasibility analysis methods.
Comprehension •Recognizes feasible candidates among a selection of
candidates (using a specified method)
Application •Performs feasibility analysis at an appropriate point in a
design project, selecting applicable method.
Analysis •Analyzes performance results, modeling results,
interfaces to determine source of failure.
Synthesis •Uses the result of a feasibility analysis to choose a
candidate.
•Employs insights gained.
Evaluation •Evaluates judgments of feasibility, particularly with
respect to possible biases.
Valuation •Accepts that recognizing feasibility is important to design
success.
Outcome Element: Evaluation Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Objectively determines relative value of feasible alternatives or proposed solutions by


comparing expected or actual performance to evaluation criteria.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Names and lists evaluation methods and their elements
applicability.
Comprehension •Describes differences among various methods.
•Carries out specified method when asked.
Application •Selects and applies appropriate evaluation method at an
appropriate point in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes results of evaluation to discern additional
criteria.
Synthesis •Ranks or otherwise rates candidates based on evaluation
results
•Reports on expected performance of candidates.
Evaluation •Judges quality and comprehensiveness of evaluation,
particularly by recognizing possible biases.
Valuation •Accepts that evaluation is important to design success.
•Respects systematic unbiased methods of evaluation.
Outcome Element: Selection/Decision Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Selection of most feasible and suitable concept among design alternatives

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Names established decision and selection methods and
their steps and applicability.
•Lists common decision criteria.
Comprehension •Describes differences between decision and selection
methods.
•Makes a decision or selection given a set of alternatives.
Application •Selects and performs appropriate decision and selection
methods at an appropriate point in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes feasible alternatives to identify bases for
decision, selection.
Synthesis •Selects a candidate and proceed with design.

Evaluation •Evaluates quality of selection or decision, e.g. with


respect to possible bias.
Valuation •Accepts that timely selection, structured decision
process is important to design success.
Outcome Element: Implementation Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Creating an instance of physical products and processes for purpose of testing or production.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Lists and outlines manufacturing and prototyping
methods.
•Lists applications, strengths, weaknesses.
Comprehension •Describes differences among methods.
•Selects an appropriate method given a situation.
•Builds a prototype by a specified method.
Application •Selects and implements fabrication or production for
design project.
Analysis •Analyzes output to suggest alternate methods of
fabrication or production.
Synthesis •Builds a prototype or manufactures the artifact.
•Incorporates components into a final design.
Evaluation •Judges quality of prototype or product.
Valuation •Accepts that prototyping and manufacturing are
important to design success.
Outcome Element: Communication Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Exchange of information with others, utilizing appropriate formats.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Names types of communication and their formats
•Names and lists steps in communication methods
•Lists difficulties, strengths and applications.
Comprehension •Describes differences between various forms of
communication.
•Carries out when asked.
•Identifies possible pitfalls in a hypothetical design situation.
Application •Selects and performs appropriate form of communication at
appropriate points in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes messages to identify implied information.
•Recognizes errors and means of remedy.
Synthesis •Communicates successfully throughout a design project.
•Directs received communications to proper recipient
Evaluation •Evaluates effectiveness of chosen format and message.

Valuation •Accepts that good communication and group dynamics is


important to design success.
Outcome Element: Documentation Reference: University of Pittsburgh

Produces usable documents or record regarding the design process and design state, including
decision history and criteria, project plan and progress, intermediate design states, finished
product and use of product.

Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes


Knowledge •Names common forms and purposes of documentation.
•Lists common targets of documentation, elements of good
documentation.
Comprehension •Describes differences among forms of documentation.
•Documents a specific design action by a specific form when
asked.
Application •Selects and performs appropriate documentation at an
appropriate point in a design project.
Analysis •Analyzes design activity to locate targets of documentation.

Synthesis •Creates comprehensive history of design process as design


proceeds.
Evaluation •Evaluates quality of produced documentation and choice of
documentation format (e.g. given audience )
Valuation •Accepts that diligent documentation is important to design
success.
Outcome Element: Iteration Reference: University of Pittsburgh
Utilizes strategies to inform design decisions which may contribute to a change in a design state (e.g. the problem
definition, problem solutions, or deign process plan).
Cognitive/Affective Domain Attributes
Knowledge •Recites definitions.
•Identifies strategies or procedures that generate information
which may contribute to design decisions.
Comprehension •Describes iterative process models of design
•Modifies, improves or elaborates a design state given a
situation.
Application •Selects and performs strategies to generate information that
may be used to modify, improve or elaborate a design state.
Analysis •Examines and critiques progress for opportunities to revise
design state as needed.
•Analyzes violations, inconsistencies, or conflicts to determine
proper response.
Synthesis •Incorporates and integrates feedback.
•Generates new knowledge about design problem.
•Develops new strategies or tools monitor progress.
Evaluation •Critiques quality of monitoring, strategies and tools.
•Judges quality of revisions to design state.
Valuation •Accepts and supports changes to original plan or product.
A curriculum map is used to validate if there is a match between
desired outcomes (competencies) and the content of programs. It
gives the stakeholders a holistic perspective to see how the desired
outcomes will be developed in the academic program.

The curriculum map is prepared by preparing a grid with the


outcomes occupying a row and the courses occupying a column
(or the other way around). The idea is to check the outcomes to
which each course contributes. A legend is useful in correlating the
outcomes and the courses. For example: L – learned in the course;
P – practiced in the course; O – opportunity to learn or practice in
the course, not yet learned or practiced. Another legend is as
follows: I – Introduce, P – Practice skills with supervision, D –
Demonstrate skills, without supervision. Health-related programs
use this legend, since the courses are designed to develop
competencies at different levels. It is also possible to simply put a
check where the courses lead to certain program outcomes.
Source: CHED
Sample Curriculum Map

Source: CHED
By its very nature, OBE is holistic in its outcomes
focus; attaining the learning outcomes is not an
end in itself but it provides building blocks for
achieving higher-level outcomes, such as
applying learning, analyzing ideas, evaluating
options, or creating new solution methods.

This new paradigm requires a new approach to


assessment as well. Assessment tools have to
reflect the attainment of desired competencies,
which are stated in terms of something
observable and/or measurable.
Assessment data inform the faculty of what, how, how
much, and how well the students are learning what they
are teaching, based on mutually agreed explicit criteria;
it is, therefore, an interactive process between the
learners and the faculty and mutually beneficial to
both. Being interactive focuses on assessment being
learner-centered, as its primary aim is to improve
learning and its being teacher-directed, because the
faculty member initially plans what and how to assess,
and the criteria for assessment are mutually agreed
upon by the learner and the faculty member. So, as
assessment improves the learner’s learning, it likewise
improves the teacher’s teaching.
The purposes of assessment have been
categorized into three:

• Assessment as learning;

• Assessment for learning; and

• Assessment of learning.

The purposes are distinct but they are


interrelated.
Source: CHED
Assessment as learning focuses on the role of the
learner as the critical connector between
assessment and learning. The learners actively
monitor and critically assess their own learning
and use the feedback from this monitoring to
make adjustments, adaptations, and even major
changes in what they understand and how they
are learning.

Source: CHED
Assessment for learning provides feedback to
both the teacher and the learner of the learner's
progress towards achieving the learning
outcomes, which should be used by the teacher
to revise and develop further instruction. Both
assessment as learning and assessment for
learning occur throughout the learning process,
making it formative in nature.

Source: CHED
Assessment of learning occurs at the end of the
course, when teachers use evidence of student
learning to make judgments on the learner’s
achievement against competencies and standards
stated as learning outcomes, making it
summative in nature.

Whatever the purpose of assessment, they all use


a variety of assessment methods.

Source: CHED
Direct assessments are most familiar to faculty. Direct
assessments provide for the direct examination or
observation of student knowledge or skills against
measurable learning outcomes. Faculty conduct direct
assessments of student learning throughout a course
using such techniques as exams, quizzes, demonstrations,
and reports. These techniques provide a sampling of what
students know and/or can do and provide strong evidence
of student learning.

However, not all learning can be measured in a direct


way. For example, a desired outcome of a course may be
to create more positive student attitudes toward
mathematics (or writing, or team work), which are
difficult to assess using direct methods.
Reference: ABET
Indirect assessments of student learning ascertain the perceived
extent or value of learning experiences. They assess opinions or
thoughts about student knowledge or skills. Indirect measures can
provide information about student perception of their learning and
how this learning is valued by different constituencies.

However, as evidence of student learning, indirect measures are not


as strong as direct measures because assumptions must be made
about what exactly the self-report means. If students report that
they have attained a particular learning outcome, how can that
report be validated? An indirect assessment is useful in that it can be
used to measure certain implicit qualities of student learning, such
as values, perceptions, and attitudes, from a variety of perspectives.
However, in the absence of direct evidence, assumptions must be
made about how well perceptions match the reality of actual
achievement of student learning.

Reference: ABET
It is important to remember that all assessment methods have
their limitations and contain some bias. A meaningful assessment
program would use both direct and indirect assessments from a
variety of sources (students, alumni, faculty, employers, etc.). This
use of multiple assessment methods provides converging evidence
of student learning. Indirect methods provide a valuable
supplement to direct methods and are generally a part of a robust
assessment program.

Reference: ABET
Method Direct Indirect Method Direct Indirect

Exit and Other Interviews X Locally Developed Exams X

Simulations X External Examiner X

Written Surveys,
Behavioral Observations X X
Questionnaires

Archival Data X Portfolios* X

Focus Groups X Oral Exams X

Performance Appraisal X Standardized Exams X

* A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that demonstrates student


achievement relative to specific competencies. Portfolios can provide for the direct measure of
student learning for the purpose of program improvement.
Reference: ABET
A rubric is a set of categories developed from the
performance criteria that define and describe
progression toward meeting important
components of work being completed, critiqued,
or assessed. (Allows faculty to assess student work
in a way that identifies the progress students are
making toward achieving the performance
criteria.)

Reference: ABET
EXAMPLE
Objective: Graduates will exhibit effective communications skills.

Outcomes: By the time of graduation, students will:

•demonstrate effective written communication skills. .


•demonstrate effective oral communication skills.

Performance criteria (indicators) for written communication skills:

a. Student provides adequate detail to support his/her


solution/argument.
b. Student uses language and appropriate word choice for the
audience.
c. Student work demonstrates an organizational pattern that is
logical and conveys completeness.
d. Student uses the rules of standard English.
Reference: ABET
Reference: ABET Reference: ABET
2 - Progressing to 1 - Below
4 - Exceeds Criteria 3 - Meets Criteria
Criteria Expectations
Inconsistent or
Provides ample Provides adequate Some details but may
few details that
supporting detail to supporting detail to include extraneous
Content may interfere
support solution/ support solution/ or loosely related
with the meaning
argument. argument. material.
of the text.
Organizational
Organizational Little evidence of
pattern is logical & Little completeness &
pattern is logical & organization or
conveys wholeness, though
Organization conveys any sense of
completeness & organization
completeness & wholeness &
wholeness with few attempted.
wholeness. completeness.
lapses.
Uses effective
Limited or
language; makes Uses effective Limited & predictable
inappropriate
engaging, language & vocabulary, perhaps
vocabulary for the
appropriate word appropriate word not appropriate for
intended
choices for choices for intended intended audience &
Style audience &
audience & audience & purpose. purpose.
purpose.
purpose.
Consistently follows Generally follows the Generally does not Does not follow
the rules of rules for standard follow the rules of the rules of
standard English. English. standard English. standard English.
ABET
Accreditation criteria:

1.Students
2.Program Educational Objectives
3.Student Outcomes
4.Continuous Improvement
5.Curriculum
6.Faculty
7.Facilities
8.Institutional Support
Criterion 1. Students

Student performance must be evaluated. Student progress must


be monitored to foster success in attaining student outcomes,
thereby enabling graduates to attain program educational
objectives. Students must be advised regarding curriculum and
career matters.

The program must have and enforce policies for accepting both
new and transfer students, awarding appropriate academic credit
for courses taken at other institutions, and awarding appropriate
academic credit for work in lieu of courses taken at the institution.
The program must have and enforce procedures to ensure and
document that students who graduate meet all graduation
requirements.
General Criterion 2. Program Educational Objectives

The program must have published program educational objectives


that are consistent with the mission of the institution, the needs of
the program’s various constituencies, and these criteria. There
must be a documented, systematically utilized, and effective
process, involving program constituencies, for the periodic review
of these program educational objectives that ensures they remain
consistent with the institutional mission, the program's
constituents' needs, and these criteria.
General Criterion 3. Student Outcomes

The program must have documented student outcomes that


prepare graduates to attain the program educational objectives.

Student outcomes are outcomes (a) through (k) plus any


additional outcomes that may be articulated by the program.

(a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and


engineering

(b) an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to


analyze and interpret data

(c) an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet


desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic,
environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety,
manufacturability, and sustainability
General Criterion 3. Student Outcomes

(d) an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams

(e) an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering


problems

(f) an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility

(g) an ability to communicate effectively

(h) the broad education necessary to understand the impact of


engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and
societal context

(i) a recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-


long learning
General Criterion 3. Student Outcomes

(j) a knowledge of contemporary issues

(k) an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern


engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.
General Criterion 4. Continuous Improvement

The program must regularly use appropriate, documented


processes for assessing and evaluating the extent to which the
student outcomes are being attained. The results of these
evaluations must be systematically utilized as input for the
continuous improvement of the program. Other available
information may also be used to assist in the continuous
improvement of the program.
General Criterion 5. Curriculum

The curriculum requirements specify subject areas appropriate to


engineering but do not prescribe specific courses. The faculty must
ensure that the program curriculum devotes adequate attention
and time to each component, consistent with the outcomes and
objectives of the program and institution. The professional
component must include:

(a) one year of a combination of college level mathematics and


basic sciences (some with experimental experience) appropriate to
the discipline. Basic sciences are defined as biological, chemical,
and physical sciences.
General Criterion 5. Curriculum

(b) one and one-half years of engineering topics, consisting of


engineering sciences and engineering design appropriate to the
student's field of study. The engineering sciences have their roots
in mathematics and basic sciences but carry knowledge further
toward creative application. These studies provide a bridge
between mathematics and basic sciences on the one hand and
engineering practice on the other. Engineering design is the
process of devising a system, component, or process to meet
desired needs. It is a decision-making process (often iterative), in
which the basic sciences, mathematics, and the engineering
sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet these
stated needs.
General Criterion 5. Curriculum

(c) a general education component that complements the


technical content of the curriculum and is consistent with the
program and institution objectives.

Students must be prepared for engineering practice through a


curriculum culminating in a major design experience based on the
knowledge and skills acquired in earlier course work and
incorporating appropriate engineering standards and multiple
realistic constraints.

One year is the lesser of 32 semester hours (or equivalent) or one-


fourth of the total credits required for graduation.
General Criterion 6. Faculty

The program must demonstrate that the faculty members are of


sufficient number and they have the competencies to cover all of the
curricular areas of the program. There must be sufficient faculty to
accommodate adequate levels of student-faculty interaction,
student advising and counseling, university service activities,
professional development, and interactions with industrial and
professional practitioners, as well as employers of students.
General Criterion 6. Faculty

The program faculty must have appropriate qualifications and must


have and demonstrate sufficient authority to ensure the proper
guidance of the program and to develop and implement processes
for the evaluation, assessment, and continuing improvement of the
program. The overall competence of the faculty may be judged by
such factors as education, diversity of backgrounds, engineering
experience, teaching effectiveness and experience, ability to
communicate, enthusiasm for developing more effective programs,
level of scholarship, participation in professional societies, and
licensure as Professional Engineers.
General Criterion 7. Facilities

Classrooms, offices, laboratories, and associated equipment must


be adequate to support attainment of the student outcomes and
to provide an atmosphere conducive to learning. Modern tools,
equipment, computing resources, and laboratories appropriate to
the program must be available, accessible, and systematically
maintained and upgraded to enable students to attain the student
outcomes and to support program needs. Students must be
provided appropriate guidance regarding the use of the tools,
equipment, computing resources, and laboratories available to the
program.

The library services and the computing and information


infrastructure must be adequate to support the scholarly and
professional activities of the students and faculty.
General Criterion 8. Institutional Support

Institutional support and leadership must be adequate to ensure


the quality and continuity of the program.

Resources including institutional services, financial support, and


staff (both administrative and technical) provided to the program
must be adequate to meet program needs. The resources
available to the program must be sufficient to attract, retain, and
provide for the continued professional development of a
qualified faculty. The resources available to the program must be
sufficient to acquire, maintain, and operate infrastructures,
facilities, and equipment appropriate for the program, and to
provide an environment in which student outcomes can be
attained.
Examples of Performance or Outcomes

Cognitive domain:
Knowledge (recall of information): arrange, define, label, list,
recall, repeat
Comprehension (interpret in own words): classify, discuss,
explain, review, translate
Application (apply to new situation): apply, choose, demonstrate,
illustrate, prepare
Analysis (break down into parts and how relationships): analyze,
categorize, compare, test
Synthesis (bring together to form a whole): arrange, collect,
assemble, propose, set up
Evaluation (judgments based on criteria): appraise, argue, attack,
choose, compare
• Affective Domain
• Receiving (pay attention) listen to perceive, be
alert to
• Responding (minimal participation_ reply,
answer, approve, obey
• Valuing (preferences) – attain, assume,
support, participate
• Organization (development of values) judge,
decide, identify with, select
• Characterization (total philosophy of life)
believe, practice, carry out
• Psychomotor Domain
• Reflexes (involuntary movements): stiffen,
extend, flex
• Fundamental movements (simple movements) -
crawl, walk, run, reach
• Perceptions (response to stimuli) turn, bend,
balance, crawl
• Physical abilities (psychomotor movements)-
move heavy objects, make quick motions
• Skilled movements (advanced learned
movements) – play an instrument, use a hand
tool
Thanks
JCB, DPA
Dean, College of Arts and Sciences & Chair MPA
Program, Taguig City University
Professorial Lecturer, Polytechnic University of the
Philippines- Graduate School