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Sodium Hydroxide:

 White, solid material that picks up moisture

from air.
 If put in water, it produces a large amount of
 Very corrosive and can cause severe burns
1. Causticization method
(Lime-soda method)

2. Electrolytic method
I. Diaphragm cell
II. Hg Cell (Denora’s cell)
III. Membrane cell
 Soda ash and slaked lime

Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 +NaOH

(10-11 %)
NaCl solution (brine)is electrolytically
decomposed to
I. elemental chlorine (in the anode
compartment), and
II. sodium hydroxide solution and elemental
hydrogen (in the cathode compartment) in
all the processes
 The overall reaction for the electrolytic
production of caustic soda and chlorine is
 2 NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O Cl2 (g) + H 2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq)

Anode Cathode
 Preparation of brine and its purification

 Electrolysis of brine

 Evaporation and salt separation

 Final Evaporation
 Chlorine drying, compression and liquefication

 Hydrogen Disposal
Rock salt contains
Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+3 along with SiO2 (minor
quantity) and SO4-2 in the form of Na2SO4

Impurities are precipitated

Na2CO3, NH4OH and BaCl2
 Uses a steel cathode, and the anode area is
separated from the cathode area by a
permeable diaphragm.

 A diluted caustic brine leaves the cell.

 The caustic soda must usually be

concentrated to 50% and the salt removed.
 Sodium metal forms an amalgam at a
mercury cathode.

 This sodium is then reacted with water to

produce NaOH.
 Similar to the diaphragm cell process.

 Naflon membrane is used to separate the cathode

and the anode reactions. Only sodium ions and a
little water pass through the membrane.

 Produces a high quality of NaOH

 Of the three processes , it requires the lowest

consumption of electric energy and the amount of
steam needed for the concentration of the caustic
soda is relatively small.
Process Advantages Disadvantages
Diaphragm • Use of well brine •Use of asbestos
Process • Low electricity •High steam
consumption consumption
•Low purity caustic
•Low chlorine quality

Mercury Process • 50% caustic direct from •Use of mercury

cell •Expensive cell
• High purity chlorine and operation
hydrogen •Large floor space
• Simple brine purification •Costly environment

Membrane • Low energy consumption

Process • Low capital investment
• High purity caustic • Cost of membrane
• Insensitivity to cell load • Use of solid salt,
variations and high purity brine