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Human Physiology BIO 200

Craig Cady, Ph.D.

Office Hours M 10AM and Fri 2PM (or by appointment)


Office - Olin 103
Phone - 677-3021
*E-mail
ccady@bradley.edu
Text “Human Anatomy and Physiology” Marieb (7th Ed.)
Human Physiology BIO200
Exams/Quizzes
Exams/Quizzes during regular class hours
3 Exams (without the final exam*)
100 points each = 300 points
*Final Exam 150 points (1/3 of total grade)
50% cumulative / 50% final lectures
7 Quizzes (6 quizzes count - drop the lowest score)
20 points each = 120 points
Total Points 570 points
Human Physiology BIO200
Grading Policy

A = 100 - 90 %
B = 89 - 80 %
C = 79 - 70 %
D = 69 - 60 %
F = 59 -

*No extra credit accepted


How to Calculate Grades

 Grade given as number of correct answers


 Each exam worth 100 points (except the final)
 Multiply number correct by a factor
» 80 questions on the exam (100 points for the
exam)
» 100 points divided by 80 questions = 1.25 (factor)
 Example 75 correct answers (out of 80
questions)
 75 X 1.25 = 93.75 points for the exam
Course Syllabus
Exam Schedule
During Usual Class Hours
Exam 1 - September 14 (Friday)
Exam 2 - October 15 (Monday)
Exam 3 - November 9 (Friday)

Final Exam Dec 12 (12 - 2PM) Bradley


Hall Neumiller Lecture Hall
Blackboard

http://blackboard.bradley.edu
www.bradley.edu
“ITPS”
(Instructional Technology and Production
Services)
 Lecture outlines will be posted
 Class announcements
Lecture Etiquette
Guidelines On How to Do Poorly in
Human Physiology

1.
2.
3.
4.
How to do well in BIO 200

1. Attend lectures
2. Review notes after each lecture (evenings)
3. Get help if you don’t understand a concept
4. If you do poorly in an exam get help EARLY
5. Attend office hours (help sessions) if you are
doing poorly
6. Prepare for the exams well in advance
Why Attend Lectures?
1. Lectures posted in outline format only
» You need to take good notes

2. Potential exam questions presented

3. Time taken for student questions

4. Exams based on lecture material only


Help/Tutors

DON’T GET BEHIND!


1. See me in my office (help sessions)
2. Tutors - Center for Learning Assistance and
Biology Graduate Student
Third floor - Library
Phone 677-3654
Tutoring for Human Physiology BIO 200
Why Study Human
Physiology?

 Health Science Career  Personal life


» Nursing » Family members/friends
» Physical Therapy – Health concerns
– Fitness
» Dietician
– Illness
» Dentistry
– Mechanisms of action - drugs
» Medical School
» Veterinary school
» Psychology
» Biology Majors
Ibuprofen
(Advil)
Prozac
(Seratonin Re-uptake Inhibitors)
Taxol
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Anabolic Steroids
Botox
Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra)
Learning Objectives Lecture 1
(Chapter 2)

1. Understand the concept and be able to


calculate molar concentrations
2. Describe (on a molecular scale) why
water has many unique properties
3. Be able to define the basic properties
of water
4. Define acid and base and describe the
concept of pH
Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry
Review Topics If Needed

 Atomic structure
 Atomic number, mass, isotopes
 Chemical bonds
» ionic, covalent and hydrogen
 Chemical Reactions
» Chemical equations, reactions
Solutions

 Solutions - homogeneous mixture of two


or more components
» gases, liquids or solids
 Solvent -

 Solute -
Concentration

 Molarity (moles/liter = M/L = M)


» Mole = sum all the atomic weights in a
compound (in grams)
» molecular weight of a compound (MW) is
the sum of all atomic weights
Concentration

 Example: MW for NaCl?

» 1Na (sodium) atomic wt =


» 1Cl (chloride) atomic wt =
» MW for NaCl
Concentration

 Example: MW for H2SO4?

» 2H atomic wt =
» 1S atomic wt =
» 4O atomic wt =
» MW =
Concentration

 Concept: Mole =  Mole of NaCl (MW =


sum all the atomic 58.5) 58.5 grams
weights in a  Molar solution
compound contains 1 mole of
» In grams solute per liter (1000
ml) of solution
Molar Solutions
How much NaCl in 1 M/L?

 1Molar solution of NaCl (= 1 M/L)


» (Molar solution contains 1 mole of solute
per liter of water)
» NaCl (MW = 58.5)
» 1 mole = 58.5 grams NaCl in 1 liter of
water
» 58.5 grams/liter = 58.5 grams/1000 ml
Molar Solutions

 How many grams of NaCl are needed to


make 10 ml of a 5 M/L solution?
 Given:
» 5 M/L of NaCl (= 5 moles/liter)
» 10 ml volume needed
» MW NaCl = 58.5 (= 58.5 grams/mole)
Molar Solutions
MW Molarity Volume
Molar Solutions
5 M/L NaCl Solution
Molar Solutions

 How many grams of 5 - fluorodeoxyuridine are


needed to make 5 ml of a 0.01 M/L solution?
 Given:
» 0.01 M/L (moles/liter)
» 5 ml total volume needed
» FUDR - MW 246.2 (= 246.2 grams/mole)
Molar Solutions
MW Molarity Volume
Molar Solutions
Molar Solutions
0.01 M/L FUDR Solution
Molar Solutions

 How many grams (grams/ml) are in a


0.1 M/L solution of NaCl?
 Given:
» 0.1 M/L (moles/liter)
» MW NaCl = 58.5 (grams/mole)
Molar Solutions
MW Molarity
Molar Solutions
Molar Solutions
0.1 Molar NaCl Solution
Properties of Water

 Dipolar
» “-” charge oxygen
» “+” charge hydrogen
 Hydrogen bonds
» Share a -H+
» Weak bonds
» Provide surface
tension
Properties of Water

 1. High heat capacity

 2. High heat of vaporization


Properties of Water

 3. “universal solvent”
» “-” ends of water
orient toward “+”
ends of solute
– Water surrounds and
dissociate small cpds
» Hydration layer water
surrounds large
proteins
– Prevents reactivity
Properties of Water

 4. Reactivity water is a reactant in many


biochemical processes
» “Hydrolysis” (water addition)
– example: decomposition reactions
 water is added to break chemical bonds
» “Dehydration synthesis” (water lost)
– example: formation of peptide bonds in protein
synthesis
Properties of Water

 5. Cushioning - protection of internal


organs
» example cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the
brain
Acids and Bases

 Acids - release hydrogen ions (H+)


» Proton donors
HCl > H+ + Cl-
 Bases - release hydroxyl ions
» proton acceptors
1. NaOH > Na+ + OH-
2. OH- + H+ > H2O
Acid-Base concentration (pH)

 H+/OH- relationship and concentration


» A solution high in [H+] is acidic
» Solution high in [OH-] has a low [H+] and is
basic (= alkaline)
 pH expression of the concentration of
hydrogen ions in a solution
» Sorensen 1909
Acid-Base concentration (pH)

 pH scale range 0 -14


» logarithmic scale
» 1 unit of pH represents 10 fold difference in
hydrogen ion concentration
» pH defined as negative logarithm of the
hydrogen ion concentration in moles per
liter
pH = -log [H+]
Acid-Base concentration (pH)

 pH = 7 (pH = -log [H+])


» H+ concentration is 10-7 M/L (0.0000001)
» (7 = -log [0.0000001])

» [H+] = [OH-] neutral solution


– example distilled water
Acid-Base concentration (pH)

 pH < 7 are acid solutions (lower pH)


» More [H+] than [OH-]

 pH = 6 (10 fold more [H+] than pH =7)


» pH = 6 [H+] = 0.000001 M/L
» pH = 7 [H+] = 0.0000001 M/L
» pH = 8 [H+] = 0.00000001 M/L
Acid-Base concentration (pH)

 pH Scale and common solutions

 pH = 5 (coffee) acidic
» [OH-] = 10-9 M/L (less OH- ions)
» [H+] = 10-5 M/L (more H+ ions)
Acid-Base concentration (pH)

 pH = 12 (bleach) basic (alkaline)

» [OH-] = 10-2 M/L (more OH- ions)


» [H+] = 10-12 M/L (less H+ ions)
Physiological pH

 Blood pH
» Female 7.40 + 0.015
» Male 7.39 + 0.015

» Acidosis: pH < 7.35


» Alkalosis: pH > 7.45