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ROMANESQUE

ARCHITECTURE
Tracing the Roots
Tracing the Roots
Tracing the Roots
Tracing the Roots
Tracing the Roots
Tracing the Roots
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IS NOT


CENTRALIZED TO A SINGLE REGION. IT AROSE
INDEPENDENTLY ON VARIETY OF LOCATIONS:
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
ITALY
• CENTRAL ITALY
• NORTHERN ITALY
• SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY
FRANCE
CENTRAL EUROPE
SPAIN
THE HOLY LAND
BRITISH ISLE
SCANDINAVIA
ROMANESQUE MEANS
“ROMAN-LIKE”
800 to 1200 AD
Romanesque
• is a style of architecture developed between the
Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD.
• characterized by round arches and vaults and thick
walls
• developed from the buildings constructed during
Charlemagne's reign.
• rise in the tradition of pilgrimages to the shrines of
important saints.
• move from wooden to stone buildings
• Inspired by Byzantine style which focused on sweeping
religious buildings
Typologies

Churches Monasteries Castles


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

STYLE DIFFER FROM REGION TO REGION.


HOWEVER, THERE ARE COMMON TRENDS
THAT PERSISTS THAT CHARACTERIZE THE
PERIOD:
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

SEMICIRCULAR ARCH/ROMAN ARCH


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

the almost triangular


space between one side
of the outer curve of an
arch, a wall, and the
ceiling or framework.

ELABORATE EXTERIORS ON WESTERN ENTRANCES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

a band of molding,
resembling an
architrave, around the
lower curve of an arch.

ELABORATE EXTERIORS ON WESTERN ENTRANCES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

a wedge-shaped or
tapered stone used to
construct an arch.

ELABORATE EXTERIORS ON WESTERN ENTRANCES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

is the semi-circular or triangular


decorative wall surface over an
entrance, door or window, bounde
lintel and arch. It often contains
sculpture or other imagery or
ornaments.

ELABORATE EXTERIORS ON WESTERN ENTRANCES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
A small column,
usually decorative.
And is a thin round
shaft o give a vertical
line in elevation, or as
an element in a
compound pier.

ELABORATE EXTERIORS ON WESTERN ENTRANCES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
A column supporting
the tympanum of a
doorway at its center

ELABORATE EXTERIORS ON WESTERN ENTRANCES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

SCULPTURES TOWERS ARCADES


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

VAULTED MASONRY CEILINGS


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

VAULTED MASONRY CEILINGS


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

VAULTED MASONRY CEILINGS


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

CRUCIFORM PLAN AND ITS PARTS


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
VAULT
CLERESTORY

TRIFORIUM

ARCADE
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

CENTRAL ITALY
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

PISA CATHEDRAL COMPLEX


SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

PISA CATHEDRAL
BAPTISTERY

• SPECIAL FEATURE OF ITALIAN


ARCHITECTURE AND REPRESENTS A
PERIOD OF CHRISTIANITY WHERE THE
BAPTISMAL IS OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE,
THEREFORE LARGE AND SEPARATE
BUILDING
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

BAPTISTERY, PISA
CAMPANILE (BELL TOWER)

• PRODUCT OF THE PERIOD


• NORTHERN ITALIAN TOWNS, CAMPANILE
ARE CIVIC MONUMENTS RATHER THAN
INTEGRAL PART OF THE CHURCH
• SYMBOL OF POWER AND SERVED AS
WATCH GUARD
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

CAMPANILE, PISA
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

PISTOIA CATHEDRAL (10th century)


SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

MINIATO AL MONTE, FLORENCE


(1013–1090)
• LENGTH OF THE CHURCH DIVIDED
BY QUATREFOIL SECTION
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

NORTHERN ITALY
LOMBARD ARCHITECTURE
• Northern Italy (7th to 8th CE)
• Early Christian and Roman Forms
• Development of Ribbed vault and
vaulting Shaft
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS
LOMBARD BAND

S. AMBROGIO, MILAN
BLIND ARCADE
• A series of arches
superimposed in a
wall for decoration.
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS
S. AMBROGIO, MILAN
• MATERIAL: BRICK
• ONLY EXISITING ATRIUM AMONG
LOMBARD CHURCHES
• NARTHEX, FLANKED BY TOWERS
• VAULTED NAVE
• TRIFORIUM GALLERY
AMBULATORY- the
covered walk of an atrium
or cloister

ATRIUM- the forecourt of


an early church, flanked or
surrounded by porticoes
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS
BALDACHIN- An ornament
canopy if stone or marble
permanently placed over
the altar in a church.
Also, baldachino, baldaquin
or ciborium

S. AMBROGIO, MILAN (INTERIOR)


An arcaded story in a church, between
the nave arches and clerestory and
corresponding to the space between
the vaulting and the roof of an aisle
SARCOPHAGUS- A stone
coffin, esp. one bearing
sculpture or inscriptions
and displayed as a
monument

Sarcophagus of Stilicone (385 AD): Apostles


SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

S. MICHELE, PAVIA
S. MICHELE, PAVIA

• NAVE DIVIDED INTO SQUARE BAYS BY TRAVERSE ARCH


• CLUSTERED PIERS TO RECEIVE RIB VAULTING
• CRUCIFORM IN PLAN
• FLAT FAÇADE WITH FOUR PILASTER STRIPS
CRYPT- an underground chamber or vault used
as a burial, esp. one beneath the main floor of
a church
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

S. MICHELE, PAVIA (INTERIOR)


LABYRINTH- a mazelike
pattern inlaid in the pavement
of a medieval church
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS
ROSE WINDOW- a circular window, CAMPANILLE- belle
usually of stained glass and decorated tower, usually ner but
with tracery symmetrical about the not attach to the body
center of the church

Blind arcades

S. ZENO MAGGIORE, VERONA


GARTH- a courtyard or
quadrangle enclosed by a cloister

CLOISTER- a covered walk having


an arcade or colonnade on one
side opening onto a courtyard
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

S. ZENO MAGGIORE, VERONA (TYMPANUM)


S. ZENO MAGGIORE, VERONA

• MATERIALS: MARBLE AND


BRICK
• PROJECTING PORCH HAS
TWO FREESTANDING
COLUMNS
• WHEEL WINDOW, ONE OF
THE EARLIEST IN ITALY
• NO TRIFORIUM BUT A
CLERESTORY
• CAMPANILE IS DETACHED
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

S. ZENO MAGGIORE, VERONA (INTERIOR)


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

SOUTHERN ITALY
& SICILY
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS
two large
Norman towers
Different spires

CEFALU CATHEDRAL, SICILY


CEFALU CATHEDRAL, SICILY
• was commenced in the Norman style
• WITH BLEND OF BYZANTINE INFLUENCE
• MOST DISTINCT ROMANESQUE
ARCHITECTURE IN SICILY
• BASILICAN NAVE WITH GROINED AISLE
VAULTS
• COLUMNAR ARCADE
AND HIGH TRANSEPT
• PRESBYTERY WITH
RIBBED VAULT
BASILICA- An early Christian church, characterized by among,
rectangular plan, a high colonnaded nave lit by a clerestory and
covered by a timbered gabled roof; two or four lower side aisles, a
semicircular apse at the end, a narthex, and often other features, such
as atrium, a bema, and small semicircular apses terminating the aisles
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

MONREALE CATHEDRAL,SICILY
MONREALE CATHEDRAL,SICILY

• BASILICAN PLAN
• NAVE COLUMNS HAVE
CAPITALS OF BYZANTINE
FORM
• TIMBER ROOFS ARE
PAINTED IN MUSLIM
STYLE
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

MONREALE CATHEDRAL, SICILY (INTERIOR)


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

FRANCE
CAROLINGIAN ARCHITECTURE
• Early Romanesque 751-987 CE
• Frankish dynasty
• Germany 911 CE
• Revival of forms of classical antiquity modified by
ecclesiastical requirements
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

Angoulême Cathedral
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

ABBEY- A
monastery under
the supervision of
an abbot, or a
convent under the
supervision of an
abbess, belonging
to the highest
rank of such
institution
Cluny Abbey,
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

GERMANY
OTTONIAN ARCHITECTURE
• Origin: Northern Italy
• 962 to 1002 CE
• Development of forms derived from
Carolingian and byzantine concepts
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS
four round towers,

two large domes

WORMS CATHEDRAL, SOUTHERN GERMANY


ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

ENGLAND
ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE
• Early Romanesque before the Norman
Conquest in 1066
• Characterized by the transition of timber
prototypes into stone.
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

ENGLAND
NORMAN ARCHITECTURE
• Romanesque introduced from Normandy into England
before the Norman conquest and flourishing until the Rise
of Gothic arch in 12th CE.
• Two tower façade supplementing the central tower
• Use of geometric ornamentation
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

Durham Cathedral
GALILEE- A small porch used as
a chapel for penitents at the
west end of some medieval
English churches
SAMPLES OF ROMANESQUE BUILDINGS

Peterborough Cathedral
SUMMARY SUMMARY
END