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Inspection of Piping Systems

( In-Service)

API 570 Code



API 570 Code
Inspection, Repair, Alteration & Rerating of in-Service
Piping Systems
API: American Petroleum Institute
Code: Means that it is a mandatory (Jurisdictional requirement) to be followed
(in USA & CANADA)
Inspection: QC Functions performed by the owner’s inspector or inspector’s delegates
Repair: The work necessary to restore a piping system to a condition suitable for safe
operation at the design condition.
Alteration: A physical change in any component that has design implications affecting
the pressure containing capability or flexibility of a piping system beyond the scope of its
design.
Rerating: A change in either or both the design temperature or the maximum allowable
working pressure of a piping system. A rerating may consist of an increase, a decrease, or
a combination of both. Rerating below original design conditions is a means to provide
increased corrosion allowance.
Position Measurements
Piping System: An assembly of interconnected piping, subject to the same design

conditions .

On-Stream: Piping Containing any amount of process


fluid
Off-Stream: Piping While in Shut-Down ( No process fluid
contained in the piping )
Reasons For Inspection:
The primary purpose of inspection is to identify active deterioration
mechanisms & causes of deterioration to specify repair,
replacement or future inspections to prevent or retard further
damage.
Proximity Transducer
Inspection of Piping Systems

Piping Inspection

During Construction In-Service inspection


(fabrication & Installation ) ( On-Stream & Of-Stream )

Considering Consequence
ASME B31.3 ASME B31.1 Considering Risk
( Power Piping )
of failure only
( Process Piping ) Ref. to API 580&581
Ref. to API 570 & 574
When Could API 570 Be
applied??

Scope

Intent Limitations

For Petroleum refining


Excluded & Optional
& Chemical process
Piping systems
Industries (Services included are:)

Packages, Heaters,
Raw, Intermediate
Boilers, Heat exchangers
& finished products

Plumbing, sanitary sewers,


H2,NG, FG, sour water
Less than NPS ½”
& FL systems

Any fluid service acc. Nonmetallic piping &


The owner/user option Glass-Lined Piping
Objectives of Inspection

Inspection Objectives

Safe
Reliability Efficiency Saving Cost Environment
Operating
What to Inspect For & Where ??

Each owner/User should provide specific attention to the


need for inspection of piping systems that are susceptible to
specific types & area of deterioration.
Areas & Types of
Deterioration

Susceptible Areas
& Types of deterioration

Areas of more concern


Types of deterioration
Of inspection

Corrosion Under Soil-To-Air


Injection Points Deadlegs
Insulation (CUI ) Interfaces (S/A)
Areas & Types of
Deterioration

Deteriorations Related
To piping Systems

Erosion &
Creep cracking Fatigue Cracking
Corrosion/Erosion
Areas & Types of Deterioration

Deteriorations Related
To Piping Systems

Corrosion Beneath Environmental Brittle Fracture &


Lining & deposits cracking Freeze Damage
Areas of Deterioration

Injection Points

The lesser of Thickness


The greater of Second change Measurement
12” upstream in direction Locations
or 3 times diameter or 25 feet after (TML)
first change

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Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Deadlegs

Stagnant Flow
OR No Flow High points Low Points
Areas

Bypass Vents Drains

Prepared By: Eng. Osama Elsaadawy 12


Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Soil-To- Air Interfaces


S/A

6” Above ground 12” Under ground

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Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Corrosion Under Insulation


CUI

Damaged or
Exposed to mist Temp. of (-4 : 120)
unsealed
From cooling for C.S.
Insulation/Jacketing
Towers / Exposed & of (65 : 204)
& Penetrations,
To steam vents for Aus. S.S
Valves & fittings

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Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Erosion & Corrosion / Erosion

Down streams of Points of flow


Down Stream
Pumps, Directional
Of C.V. ,Orifice,
Compressors Changes OR
Discharge of turbulent flow

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When to Inspect ??

Inspection Intervals
Service
Jurisdictional Remaining
Classes RBI
Requirements Life (API 570)
(API 570)
Piping Service Classes Acc. API 570

Piping Classes

Class I Class II Class III

Flammable/
H2S greater 35 wt, Piping over or
Auto –refrigerate
HF, C2,C3 adjacent to
& Rapidly
& C4 water/public
Vaporized

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Piping Service Classes Acc. API 570
Cont.

Class II

On-site
On-site Hydrocarbons
Strong Acids Slowly H2, FG & NG
& caustics vaporize
Piping Service Classes Acc. API 570
Cont.

Class III

On-site
Off-Site
Distillate product Hydrocarbons
Acids &
Lines from & to Slowly
Caustics &
Storage & Loading Vaporize & operating
Remote Areas
Below Flash Point
How to Inspect for
Deteriorations ??

Types of Inspection & Surveillance

On-Stream Off-Stream Supplemental


Inspection Inspection Inspection

Thickness Vibration
External VT
Measurements Measurement
Types of Inspection &Surveillance
Cont.

Off-Stream Inspection

Material
Thickness
Internal VT External VT Verification &
Measurements
traceability
Types of Inspection & Surveillance Cont.

Supplemental
Inspection

Acoustic
Thermography & RT / UT for Weld / BM
Emission &
Temp. Measurements Inspection
Leak Detection

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Notes

•For more information about the detailed inspection for piping


systems components & deteriorations mechanisms, Ref. to
API RP 574 & API RP 579.

•Pressure tests not normally conducted as part of a routine


inspection, But when conducted this will be after completing a
repair, alteration OR rerating.

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Recommended Max.
Intervals For Inspection

Class I

Thickness Measurements Visual Inspection

5 Years Max.
5 Years Max.
Recommended Max.
Intervals For Inspection
Class II

Thickness Measurements Visual Inspection

10 Years Max. 5 Years Max.


Recommended Max.
Intervals For Inspection
Class III

Thickness Measurements Visual Inspection

10 Years Max. 10 Years Max.


How To Use The Inspection
Findings ??
 Inspection Data Evaluation & Analysis
 API 570 Recognize fitness -For- Service concepts foe Evaluating
In-service Degradations .
 API RP 579 provides general requirements & detailed assessment
for specific types of degradation that are referenced in API 570.
Inspection Data Evaluation & Analysis

Calculations For

Remaining Life
MAWP Determination
Calculation (RL)

Corrosion Rate (CR)


Determination MAWP >= Design Pressure

Short – Term Corrosion Rate (ST)

Long – Term Corrosion Rate (LT)

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Calculations Of CR, RL &
MAWP
LTCR (mm) = t
initial - tactual
Time (years) between them

STCR (mm) = t previous - t actual


Time (years) between them

RL (years) = t actual - t required


Corrosion Rate (mm)

MAWP = 2SET/D >= Design Pressure


Repair, Alteration & Rerating

Repairs

Welding Repairs Non-welding Repairs


( On-Stream) (On-Stream)

Temporary Repairs Permanent Repairs

Welded split sleeve / Insert Patches


Box Type enclosure ( Flush Patches )

Split coupling /
Plate patch
(Fillet Welded)
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Repair, Alteration & Rerating

Non-welding Repairs
(On-Stream)

Leak Dissipating
Bolted Leak Clamps Leak Sealing
Devices
Rerating

Rerating

Derating (Decrease Rating) Increase the Rating

Rating: Design Pressure & Temperature Ranges As well As


Operating Pressure & temperature

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Inspection Of Buried piping

• Inspection of Buried Process Piping is deferent from other


process piping because significant external deterioration can
be caused by corrosive soil condition.
Types & Methods of Inspection

Types Of inspection & Intervals Of Inspection

Above-Grade Visual surveillance Close-Internal Potential Survey


Each 6 months intervals (Visual) 5 Yrs intervals

Pipe coating Holiday Survey Soil Resistivity


(Corrosivity measurement each 5 Yrs)

Cathodic protection Monitoring


Internal Inspection
(Ref. to API RP 651)

External Inspection
Leak Testing
(Excavation & Thickness Measurements)
Frequency Of Inspection For Buried Piping
Without Effective Cathodic protection

Cathodically Protected Line

Ineffective C.P Without C.P

Leak Test For C.P Lines


Excavation For
Thickness measurement
(as alternation)

Soil Resistivity (Ohm/cm)

< 2000 each 5Yrs

Bet. 2000 to 10000 each 10 Yrs

> 10000 each 15 Yrs


Frequency Of Inspection For Buried Piping
Without Effective Cathodic protection

Frequency

Leak Test For C.P Lines


Leak test For
(as alternation) Lines Without C.P

Soil Resistivity (Ohm-cm) Soil Resistivity (Ohm-cm)

< 2000 each 5Yrs < 2000 each 2.5Yrs

Bet. 2000 to 10000 each 10 Yrs Bet. 2000 to 10000 each 5 Yrs

> 10000 each 15 Yrs > 10000 each 7.5 Yrs