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Inspection of Piping Systems

( In-Service)

API 570 Code

API 570 Code
Inspection, Repair, Alteration & Rerating of in-Service
Piping Systems
API: American Petroleum Institute
Code: Means that it is a mandatory (Jurisdictional requirement) to be followed
Inspection: QC Functions performed by the owner’s inspector or inspector’s delegates
Repair: The work necessary to restore a piping system to a condition suitable for safe
operation at the design condition.
Alteration: A physical change in any component that has design implications affecting
the pressure containing capability or flexibility of a piping system beyond the scope of its
Rerating: A change in either or both the design temperature or the maximum allowable
working pressure of a piping system. A rerating may consist of an increase, a decrease, or
a combination of both. Rerating below original design conditions is a means to provide
increased corrosion allowance.
Position Measurements
Piping System: An assembly of interconnected piping, subject to the same design

conditions .

On-Stream: Piping Containing any amount of process

Off-Stream: Piping While in Shut-Down ( No process fluid
contained in the piping )
Reasons For Inspection:
The primary purpose of inspection is to identify active deterioration
mechanisms & causes of deterioration to specify repair,
replacement or future inspections to prevent or retard further
Proximity Transducer
Inspection of Piping Systems

Piping Inspection

During Construction In-Service inspection

(fabrication & Installation ) ( On-Stream & Of-Stream )

Considering Consequence
ASME B31.3 ASME B31.1 Considering Risk
( Power Piping )
of failure only
( Process Piping ) Ref. to API 580&581
Ref. to API 570 & 574
When Could API 570 Be


Intent Limitations

For Petroleum refining

Excluded & Optional
& Chemical process
Piping systems
Industries (Services included are:)

Packages, Heaters,
Raw, Intermediate
Boilers, Heat exchangers
& finished products

Plumbing, sanitary sewers,

H2,NG, FG, sour water
Less than NPS ½”
& FL systems

Any fluid service acc. Nonmetallic piping &

The owner/user option Glass-Lined Piping
Objectives of Inspection

Inspection Objectives

Reliability Efficiency Saving Cost Environment
What to Inspect For & Where ??

Each owner/User should provide specific attention to the

need for inspection of piping systems that are susceptible to
specific types & area of deterioration.
Areas & Types of

Susceptible Areas
& Types of deterioration

Areas of more concern

Types of deterioration
Of inspection

Corrosion Under Soil-To-Air

Injection Points Deadlegs
Insulation (CUI ) Interfaces (S/A)
Areas & Types of

Deteriorations Related
To piping Systems

Erosion &
Creep cracking Fatigue Cracking
Areas & Types of Deterioration

Deteriorations Related
To Piping Systems

Corrosion Beneath Environmental Brittle Fracture &

Lining & deposits cracking Freeze Damage
Areas of Deterioration

Injection Points

The lesser of Thickness

The greater of Second change Measurement
12” upstream in direction Locations
or 3 times diameter or 25 feet after (TML)
first change

Areas of Deterioration Cont.


Stagnant Flow
OR No Flow High points Low Points

Bypass Vents Drains

Prepared By: Eng. Osama Elsaadawy 12

Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Soil-To- Air Interfaces


6” Above ground 12” Under ground

Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Corrosion Under Insulation


Damaged or
Exposed to mist Temp. of (-4 : 120)
From cooling for C.S.
Towers / Exposed & of (65 : 204)
& Penetrations,
To steam vents for Aus. S.S
Valves & fittings

Areas of Deterioration Cont.

Erosion & Corrosion / Erosion

Down streams of Points of flow

Down Stream
Pumps, Directional
Of C.V. ,Orifice,
Compressors Changes OR
Discharge of turbulent flow

When to Inspect ??

Inspection Intervals
Jurisdictional Remaining
Classes RBI
Requirements Life (API 570)
(API 570)
Piping Service Classes Acc. API 570

Piping Classes

Class I Class II Class III

H2S greater 35 wt, Piping over or
Auto –refrigerate
HF, C2,C3 adjacent to
& Rapidly
& C4 water/public

Piping Service Classes Acc. API 570

Class II

On-site Hydrocarbons
Strong Acids Slowly H2, FG & NG
& caustics vaporize
Piping Service Classes Acc. API 570

Class III

Distillate product Hydrocarbons
Acids &
Lines from & to Slowly
Caustics &
Storage & Loading Vaporize & operating
Remote Areas
Below Flash Point
How to Inspect for
Deteriorations ??

Types of Inspection & Surveillance

On-Stream Off-Stream Supplemental

Inspection Inspection Inspection

Thickness Vibration
External VT
Measurements Measurement
Types of Inspection &Surveillance

Off-Stream Inspection

Internal VT External VT Verification &
Types of Inspection & Surveillance Cont.


Thermography & RT / UT for Weld / BM
Emission &
Temp. Measurements Inspection
Leak Detection


•For more information about the detailed inspection for piping

systems components & deteriorations mechanisms, Ref. to
API RP 574 & API RP 579.

•Pressure tests not normally conducted as part of a routine

inspection, But when conducted this will be after completing a
repair, alteration OR rerating.

Recommended Max.
Intervals For Inspection

Class I

Thickness Measurements Visual Inspection

5 Years Max.
5 Years Max.
Recommended Max.
Intervals For Inspection
Class II

Thickness Measurements Visual Inspection

10 Years Max. 5 Years Max.

Recommended Max.
Intervals For Inspection
Class III

Thickness Measurements Visual Inspection

10 Years Max. 10 Years Max.

How To Use The Inspection
Findings ??
 Inspection Data Evaluation & Analysis
 API 570 Recognize fitness -For- Service concepts foe Evaluating
In-service Degradations .
 API RP 579 provides general requirements & detailed assessment
for specific types of degradation that are referenced in API 570.
Inspection Data Evaluation & Analysis

Calculations For

Remaining Life
MAWP Determination
Calculation (RL)

Corrosion Rate (CR)

Determination MAWP >= Design Pressure

Short – Term Corrosion Rate (ST)

Long – Term Corrosion Rate (LT)

Calculations Of CR, RL &
LTCR (mm) = t
initial - tactual
Time (years) between them

STCR (mm) = t previous - t actual

Time (years) between them

RL (years) = t actual - t required

Corrosion Rate (mm)

MAWP = 2SET/D >= Design Pressure

Repair, Alteration & Rerating


Welding Repairs Non-welding Repairs

( On-Stream) (On-Stream)

Temporary Repairs Permanent Repairs

Welded split sleeve / Insert Patches

Box Type enclosure ( Flush Patches )

Split coupling /
Plate patch
(Fillet Welded)
Repair, Alteration & Rerating

Non-welding Repairs

Leak Dissipating
Bolted Leak Clamps Leak Sealing


Derating (Decrease Rating) Increase the Rating

Rating: Design Pressure & Temperature Ranges As well As

Operating Pressure & temperature

Inspection Of Buried piping

• Inspection of Buried Process Piping is deferent from other

process piping because significant external deterioration can
be caused by corrosive soil condition.
Types & Methods of Inspection

Types Of inspection & Intervals Of Inspection

Above-Grade Visual surveillance Close-Internal Potential Survey

Each 6 months intervals (Visual) 5 Yrs intervals

Pipe coating Holiday Survey Soil Resistivity

(Corrosivity measurement each 5 Yrs)

Cathodic protection Monitoring

Internal Inspection
(Ref. to API RP 651)

External Inspection
Leak Testing
(Excavation & Thickness Measurements)
Frequency Of Inspection For Buried Piping
Without Effective Cathodic protection

Cathodically Protected Line

Ineffective C.P Without C.P

Leak Test For C.P Lines

Excavation For
Thickness measurement
(as alternation)

Soil Resistivity (Ohm/cm)

< 2000 each 5Yrs

Bet. 2000 to 10000 each 10 Yrs

> 10000 each 15 Yrs

Frequency Of Inspection For Buried Piping
Without Effective Cathodic protection


Leak Test For C.P Lines

Leak test For
(as alternation) Lines Without C.P

Soil Resistivity (Ohm-cm) Soil Resistivity (Ohm-cm)

< 2000 each 5Yrs < 2000 each 2.5Yrs

Bet. 2000 to 10000 each 10 Yrs Bet. 2000 to 10000 each 5 Yrs

> 10000 each 15 Yrs > 10000 each 7.5 Yrs