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Digestive System

www.digestivediseasescenter.com

Rut Herdianti P. E. 26th November 2018


Overview
Oral Cavity

Gastrointestinal
Oesophagus
Upper
Stomach

Duodenum

Jejunum

Lower Ileum

Colon

Pancreas

Accessory Liver

Gall-bladder

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Anatomy
• ~appropriate to embryology (Week 4)
• Primitive gut-endoderm (head, tail, lateral folds) + ectoderm (cranial =
stomodeum & caudal = proctodaeum)
– Fore-gut
– Mid-gut
– Hind-gut

embryology.med.unsw.edu.au

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Anatomy

www.firstclassmed.com

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Anatomy
• Fore-gut
• Mid-gut
• Hind-gut

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Anatomy
• Fore-gut
• Lower Respiratory Tract
– Pharynx
– Oesophagus
Duodenal Papilla Major
– Stomach
– PROXIMAL Duodenum
– Liver & Pancreas
– Biliary Apparatus
• Mid-gut
• Hind-gut

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Anatomy
• Fore-gut
• Mid-gut
– Small Intestines (below PROXIMAL duodenum)
– Caecum & Appendix
– Ascending Colon
– 2/3 transverse colon
• Hind-gut

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Anatomy
• Fore-gut
• Mid-gut
• Hind-gut
– 1/3 distal transverse colon
– Descending colon
– Sigmoid colon
– Rectum
– Upper anal canal
• Urogenital parts

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium
b. Lamina Propria
c. Muscularis Mucosae
• Tunica Submucosa
• Tunica Muscularis
• Tunica Serosa
Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium
 Covering, lining & protecting
 Absorption
 Secretion  hormonal, mucosal, enzyme
 Contractility  transport
b. Lamina Propria
Loose Connective Tissues [Blood and Lymph vessels, glands, macrophage and lymphocytes
accumulation (nodules)]
c. Muscularis Mucosae
Smooth Muscle  enhance contractility and motility

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium in Digestive Tract
1. Protective = SQUAMOUS simple or stratified
2. Secretory = COLUMNAR simple or pseudo-stratified
3. Absorptive = COLUMNAR simple
4. Absorptive/Protective = COLUMNAR simple-squamous stratified

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium in Digestive Tract
1. Protective = SQUAMOUS simple or stratified
Oral cavity, Pharynx, Oesophagus, Anus

Pharynx
Oesophagus

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu

www.gettyimages.co.uk

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium in Digestive Tract
2. Secretory = COLUMNAR simple or pseudo-stratified
Gastric

www.histology.leeds.ac.uk

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium in Digestive Tract
3. Absorptive = COLUMNAR simple
Small intestines*
Jejunum
Duodenum *Plica circulares – Villi – Microvilli ZOOM

Surface expansion - folds


• Plica = 3x
• Villi = 10x
• Microvilli = 20x

http://www.pathologyoutlines.com

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Mucosa
a. Epithelium in Digestive Tract
4. Absorptive/Protective = COLUMNAR simple-squamous stratified
Colon
Rectum

pathologyoutlines.com

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Histology
• Tunica Submucosa
Dense connective tissue [Blood and Lymph vessels, glands, macrophage and
lymphocytes accumulation (nodules) + Meissner’s Nerve Plexus]
• Tunica Muscularis
– Smooth muscles
• Circular
• Longitudinal
– Auerbach’s Nerve Plexus (Myenteric)
• Tunica Serous/Adventitia
– Thin loose connective tissue with mesothelium
Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• General  transfer nutrients from EXTERNAL into INTERNAL body environment
• Processes:
1. Ingestion - Motility/propulsion
2. Digestion (with enzyme secretion)
a. Mechanical
b. Chemical
3. Absorption
4. Excretion

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology

1. ↓ blood glucose (nutrients)


2. Empty stomach 1. Nutrients enter blood
2. Full stomach

vivo.colostate.edu

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Mechanical Digestion
– Mastication
– Deglutition (Swallowing)
– Churning
• Chemical Digestion
– Carbohydrates
– Protein
– Lipids

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Mechanical Digestion
– Mastication

pocketdentistry.com
Cutting

what-when-how.com
Grinding

depositphotos.com

– Deglutition (Swallowing)
– Churning

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Mechanical Digestion
– Mastication

– Deglutition (Swallowing)
• Voluntary Phase (Oral)
• Reflex (Pharyngeal & Oesophageal)

– Churning
Goyal et Mashimo, GI Motility Online 2006. DOI: 10.1038/gimo1

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Mechanical Digestion
– Mastication
– Deglutition (Swallowing)

– Churning

www.bbc.co.uk

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Chemical Digestion
Break complex chemicals into simple nutrients by digestive enzymes
– Carbohydrates
• Polysaccharide  disaccharides and monosaccharides
– Protein
• Polypeptides  amino acids
– Lipids
• Fat  Free fatty acids & monoglyceride

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Biochemistry
Carbohydrate Protein Fat
Amylase Pepsin & Renin
Trypsin Lipase
Maltase Peptidases

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Biochemistry
Carbohydrate Protein Fat
Amylase Pepsin & Renin
Trypsin Lipase
Maltase Peptidases

1. Oral
 Salivary
Amylase
2. Gastric
3. Intestine
 Pancreatic
Amylase
 Maltase

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Biochemistry
Carbohydrate Protein Fat
Amylase Pepsin & Renin
Trypsin Lipase
Maltase Peptidases

1. Gastric
 Pepsin; renin
2. Intestines
 Bile
 Pancreatic
 Intestinal

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Biochemistry
Carbohydrate Protein Fat
Amylase Pepsin & Renin
Trypsin Lipase
Maltase Peptidases

1. Gastric (little amount)


2. Intestines

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Absorption
– Active Transport
• Primary – Na+/K+ATPase
• Secondary – Electrogradient
– Passive Transport
• Simple diffusion based on concentrations gradients

Rut Herdianti P. E.
Physiology
• Excretion

Rut Herdianti P. E.