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I N TH E N A M E O F A LL A H TH E

M O ST

GR AC E FU L A N D M E RC I F U L
STARTING AND REVERSING

MAN & B&W 70 MC ENGINE

M.T WAFRAH
In order to maneuver a ship in astern direction, the propeller thrust is reversed by means of changing the direction of rotation of propeller or by altering the propeller pitch
Reversing
Non reversible engines Reversible engines

• Controllable pitch propeller • Fixed pitch propeller

• Gear box, arrangement of • For astern running all the


clutches. operation in the engine
cycle needs retiming.
Engine cycle retiming
WHY AND HOW?
WHAT CYCLES TO BE RETIMED
1
1. STARTING AIR DISTRIBUTION TIMING
OBJECTIVE
1. STARTING AIR DISTRIBUTION TIMING
2. FUEL PUMP TIMING
OBJECTIVE
2. FUEL PUMP TIMING
3. SCAVNEGE AND EXHAUST VALVE TIMING
SCAVENGE VALVE
3. SCAVENGE AND EXHAUST VALVE
TIMING
ASTERN DIRECTION AHEAD DIRECTION
Reversing principle of both SULZER and B&W is the
same yet they use different operative mechanism.

• Sulzer • B&W
1. Sulzer engines have oil 1. MAN – B&W SMC have their
pressure operated fuel pump cams fixed directly
hydraulic ,lost motion, to the camshaft but the
servomotors on cam shaft follower rollers can be
which rotates the fuel pump displaced to alter the pump
cams to their astern position. timing.
2. A similar servomotor is used
to retime air distributor and 2. A pneumatic cylinder that
its drive from the camshaft. adjusts the distributor cam
through link in either
direction.
OBJECTIVE
After understanding the basics of reversing I would like to come to our main objective and that is to understand the PNEUMATIC DIAGRAM, of MAN & B&W ENGINE, in a much simple way in order to locate and rectify any problem, specially during maneuvering, promptly.
To easily understand we will divide the PNEUMATIC DIAGRAM into eight units as per the manual and then combine them in normal
operational way.

1. REMOTE CONTROL VALVE UNIT.


2. REVERSING VALVE UNIT.
3. AHED/ASTERN VALVE UNIT.
4. STARTING VALVE UNIT.
5. THROTTLE VALVE UNIT.
6. STOP VALVE UNIT.
7. SHUT DOWN SOLENOID VALVE UNIT.
8. MAIN STARTING VALVE UNIT.
M.T.WAFRAH PNEUMATIC DIAGRAM
Now we will see the contents of each valve unit and their role in starting, reversing and normal running operation
1.REMOTE CONTROL VALVE UNIT.
• Located near
emergency
maneuvering stand in a
closed box.

• Consists of four valves


and one pressure
switch.
83

86
Before further proceedings please note that control air is always available at the inlet of some valves from now onwards we will call this air as“ READY AIR”, but the valve will only activate once it
gets pilot signal. Once it gets the signal then the READY AIR does the remaining operation. Pilot signal itself comes from control air line but reaches the valves after some pre-request conditions.
Since we are only considering maneuvering system we will not consider the role of control air in other systems like VIT, EXHAUST VALVE SEALING,M/E ODME etc.
control air is available to the following valves at all times, as described in previous slide, and displayed in the next slide using green line.
Valve no 10,11,27,100,115
VALVE 84 STOP SOLENOID VALVE

Gives signal to valve 25 via double non return valve23 and also to valve 117 via double non return valve 191 and throttle valve 30.please note that this is a pilot signal.
Red line shows the stopping pilot signal from 84 to 117 &
DOTTED RED LINE IS SHOWNING STOPPING ACTION
Valve 25
valve 25 leads control air to puncture valve on each fuel pump. This prevents the injection of high pressure fuel oil into the cylinders.

Valve 117

1.valve 117 activates the starting air distributor so that it is ready when the starting signal is given.
2.Activates the starting air distributor when stop signal is received.
3.Control air supply to valve 14 and 15 when stop is given.
VALVE 25 VALVE 117
VALVE 86 SOLENOID VALVE
AHEAD
valve 86 gives pilot signal, via double non return valve 29, to valve 14 and 10 when ahead is ordered.
valve 14 Prevents reversing of starting Valve 10 leads air to reversing
air distributor when starting air is
supplied and activates the starting air cylinder 13 for reversing to ahead
distributor in ahead position position.

.
Valve 10 leads air to reversing cylinder 13 for
reversing to ahead position.

13
More details of reversing cylinder
7
.Manual blocking of the air supply to the
cylinder in astern direction.
179 .Ball valve

180,182
VALVE 86 ACTIVATED
valve 14 activates the starting air
distributor in ahead position.

VALVE 10 leads air to reversing cylinder 13 for reversing to ahead position.

Note
The rollers guides are only able to reverse when the engine rotates.
VALVE 88 SOLENOID VALVE
ASTERN
valve 86 gives pilot signal, via double non return valve 30, to valve 15 and 11 when astern is ordered.
valve 15 activates the starting air
distributor in astern position.
VALVE 11 leads air to reversing cylinder 13 for reversing to astern position.
Please note again that
The rollers guides will only be able to reverse when the engine rotates.
To avoid repetition of some pictures please refer to slide 38 for valve 15 and 11.
Until now we had some understanding about the ahead and astern changeover sequence and operation. Now lets see what happens when the start solenoid valve 90 activates.
VALVE 90 SOLENOID VALVE
START ALLOWS AIR DURING
STARTING.
PREVENTS AIR INLET TO
STARTING AIR DISTRIBUTOR
IN CASE OF LEAKING MAIN
STARTING VALVE
START LEADS
SOLENOID PILOT AIR
TO V/V 26
VALVE DOUBLE NON
26AND 27
RETURN VALVE

90 31 33

27

CONTROLS THE MAIN


STARTING VALVE AND SLOW
TURNING VALVE
Valve 118 is manual blocking VALVE 26
1.Allows air during starting.
of air to distributor 2.Prevents air inlet to starting air distributor
in case of leaking main starting valve.
VALVE 33
VALVE 27

LEADS PILOT AIR TO V/V 26 AND 27 CONTROLS THE MAIN STARTING VALVE AND SLOW TURNING VALVE
Valve 32
Delays venting of pilot signal to valve 26 and 27.This delays is adjustable .The purpose of this delay is to ensure that those cylinders which are supplied with starting air, when changing to fuel oil, will fulfill the starting sequence.
This ensure a good start of the engine .
Delay about one second.

Valve 28
1. control slow turning
2.Prevents opening of the main starting valve until the crankshaft has rotated at least one revolution.
Before further proceedings please note that engine
will start only if the following interlocks are removed.
1.Turning gear interlock valve 115.
2.Air fuel interlock (fuel in cut off condition) Valve
25 and 117.
3.Reversing interlock valve 14 and 15
in some B&W engines its valve 55 and 56.
4.Emergency shut down in unoperating condition.
5.Aux blowers in running condition.
6.Startingg air pressure is not too low.
By activating valve 27 starting is air is supplied but it is restricted for the first one rotation. The main
engine rotates slowly usually its pre set timing is 25 seconds. Then the reversing mechanism change
over into the ahead, astern position. when the main engines completes one rotation regular air run is
commenced through valve 28 which opens main air starting valve.
Lets see how it looks for ahead position.
VALAVE 90 ACTIVATED , AHEAD
POSITION
Please not that until engine reaches 8-12 % MCR speed valve 84 i.e. stop valve remain activated. This means that until this speed puncture valves are still active through valve 25 and starting air distributor is
prevented from reversing through valve 117. Lets see how it will look.
Engine will now rotate on starting air. when R.P.M detector
detects the ahead motion valve 40 is deactivated enabling
regulating valve 53 to control the fuel pump VIT index via valve
52 during running ahead.
When the engine reaches 8-12 MCR speed
1. Stop switch 63 deactivates valve 84 and subsequently
valve 25,vents puncture valves causing high pressure fuel oil
to be injected into cylinders. And also will deactivate valve
117 that cuts the pilot signal to starting air distributor.
2. Start switch 64 deactivates valve 90 and subsequently
causing deactivation of valve 33 and with one second delay
(valve 32) de activates valve 27, that closes the main and
slow turning valve, and valve 26 that closes the air supply to
the starting air distributor. This one second delay causes the
main starting valve to remain open, so as to supply air to
those cylinders that are in start position.
3.With six seconds delay switch 86 deactivate valve 86 which
subsequently deactivates valve 10 which vents the reversing
cylinder and vents valve 14 causing venting of starting air
distributor.
This six seconds delay is to ensure that the fuel roller guides
changes their position.
Now we will discus few things
about shut down solenoid valve
Manual emergency shut down switches are
provide on the following area.
1.Bridge (illuminated push button)
2.Control room(illuminated push button)
3.Engine side. (illuminated push button)
When above mentioned switches operated the
fuel is cut off to stop the engine through shut
down solenoid valve 127 and alarm activates.
The main engine is automatically shut down with the fuel cut off in anyone of the following condition.
1.Overspeed
2.Main L.O. low pressure.
3.Turbo charger L.O. low pressure.
4.Thrust paid high temperature.
In case of over speed, emergency shut down instantly operates. in case the others, emergency shut down operates after abnormal condition continued for a preset time.
The safety system is completely separate system for the protection of engine. Its designed to take prompt action in case of any shut down condition. The pneumatic part of the safety system
is separate from the control system and supplied with air via valve 16 and is controlled be safety system(separate power supply).
In case of shut down the safety system activates valve 127 then an air signal is led to the puncture valves on each fuel pump whereupon the engine stops.
The system is connected in all modes of engine control.
Safety system
As far as the pneumatic system is concerned I think I don’t have much to add however as we have seen that each
pneumatic valve is playing a vital role in manoeuvring and safety system, we should pay particular attention
towards these valves occasionally. please refer to the following service letters for further understandings.
SL03-415/CSH
JAN 2003

SL01-394/CBO
OCT 2001

SL-88-244/UM
OCT- 1988

SL-86-212/UM
JUNE 1986
A numbering system is used to designate directional control valves
and is in accordance with ISO 5599,prior to this lettering system as
used.
Port or connection ISO 5599 lettering system
Pressure port 1 P
Exhaust port 3 R(3/2 way valve)
Exhaust ports 5,3 R,s(5/2 way valve)
Signal port 2,4 B,A
Pilot line opens 12 Z(single pilot 3/2
flow 1 to 2 way)

Pilot line opens 12 Y (5/2 way valve)


flow 1 to 2

Pilot line opens 14 Z (5/2 way valve)


flow 1 to 4
Pilot line flow 10 Z, y
closed
Auxiliary pilot air 81,91 PZ
If we know the ports of the valve we can easily check whether
supply is there if yes check the signal port, if yes, check the
exhaust port (depends upon valve)and that’s how we can easily
reach to a problematic valve during critical time of maneuvering.
Cleanliness is half
engineering
supply clean air
If the starting and control air contains water and dirt,even the best control valve eventually fail. consequently, special care must be taken to ensure that control air supply system is properly operated and maintained.
This means that
-Air bottles must be drained daily
-Filters must be cleaned regularly.
-Automatic water traps must be emptied regularly.
-Water and oil separator must be installed in compressor or in supply line right after the air supply from the compressor, reservoir.
-Compressor must be maintained in order to minimize the content of oil in the air.
As per my knowledge and understandings, I tried utmost to be honest with the topic and objective however for the sake of further improvement any one can add, amend and delete the contents of this presentation. I will be glad of such change and would loved
to be informed (urfayaz@gmail.com). Please note that pneumatic diagram for B&W engine are slightly different for different models but more than 90% of contents and locations are the same.
Reference material.
1.B&W MANUAL
2.“NABCO” MAIN ENGINE MANOEUVERING AND CONTROL COURCE.
4.STARTING AIR SYSTEM (CBT) SINGAPORE.
3.A J Wharton's DIESEL ENGINE.
4.B&W SERVICE LETTERS.
I would like to thank all engineers on board ship WAFRAH for their support, guidelines in making this presentation.
I hope and wish that this effort should give some understanding, about maneuvering system, to junior engineers.

Dedicated to K.O.T.C
FAYAZ ALI KHAN
3 ENGINEER
RD

M.T.WAFRAH