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# STRUCTURES – III

UNIT 2

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DESIGN PROCESS
• Design is the determination of the general shape and all
specific dimensions of a particular structure so that it will
perform the function for which it was created.
• So , good design must be safe and economic.

Member
Dimension
Design
Process
Reinforcement
Strength Ratio
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## Loads are classified as static and dynamic . Static loads are

independent from time but dynamic loads are function of time.

movable and those have
their values unchangeable
are uncertain. locations in
structure and
their values are
certain and
constant .

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assessed based on the forces due to :
• weight of the member itself,
• weight of all materials of construction incorporated
into the building to be supported permanently by
the member,
• weight of permanent partitions,
• weight of fixed service equipment, and
• net effect of prestressing.

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the structural element

Example 1
a R.C.C. beam
Size of the beam is 23 X
30 cm. Length of the beam
is 5.0 mt.
beam

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Let us calculate the Live load on structure
We have to refer the International building codes for live load
Live load is as per the usage of the building.

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density . Live loads are movable and their values are uncertain , so they
cannot be calculated directly and local or international specifications
shall be consulted.
LIVE LOAD VALUES DEPENDENT ON TYPES OF BUILDING OCCUPANCY.

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The other group of loads is the dynamic loads , and the following are

AIM- Buildings and other structures, including the Main
Wind‐Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and all
components and cladding thereof, shall be designed
and constructed to resist wind loads as specified
herein.
• Wind Pressures: Acting on opposite faces of each
building surface. In the calculation of design wind loads
for the MWFRS and for components and cladding for
buildings, the algebraic sum of the pressures acting on
opposite faces of each building surface shall be taken
into account.

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MINIMUM DESIGN WIND
• Main Wind‐Force Resisting System: The wind load to be used
in the design of the MWFRS for an enclosed or partially
enclosed building or other structure shall not be less than 0.5
kN/m₂ multiplied by the area of the building or structure
projected onto a vertical plane normal to the assumed wind
direction. The design wind force for open buildings and other
structures shall be not less than 0.5 kN/m2) multiplied by the
area Af .
• Components and Cladding: The design wind pressure for
components and cladding of buildings shall not be less than a
net pressure of 0.5 kN/m2 acting in either direction normal to
the surface.
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For next class
• IS 875 part 3 – wind zones, speeds, pressures
• Calculation of wind loads for simple buildings

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ASSIGNMENT