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DNA is the genetic material that defines every cell.

Before a cell duplicates and is divided into
new daughter cells through either mitosis or meiosis,
biomolecules and organelles must be copied to be
distributed among the cells. DNA, found within
the nucleus, must be replicated in order to ensure that
each new cell receives the correct number
of chromosomes. The process of DNA duplication is
called DNA Replication.
DNA Structure

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a type of molecule

known as a nucleic acid. It consists of a 5-carbon deoxyribose
sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. Double-stranded
DNA consists of two spiral nucleic acid chains that are twisted
into a double helix shape. This twisting allows DNA to be more
compact. In order to fit within the nucleus, DNA is packed into
tightly coiled structures called chromatin. Chromatin condenses
to form chromosomes during cell division. Prior to DNA
replication, the chromatin loosens giving cell replication
machinery access to the DNA strands.
Preparation for Replication

1. Replication Fork Formation

2. Primer Binding
3. Elongation
4. Termination
1.Replication Fork Formation
Before DNA can be replicated, the double stranded
molecule must be “unzipped” into two single strands. DNA
has four bases called adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine
(C) and guanine (G) that form pairs between the two
strands. Adenine only pairs with thymine and cytosine only
binds with guanine. In order to unwind DNA, these
interactions between base pairs must be broken. This is
performed by an enzyme known as DNA helicase. DNA
helicase disrupts the hydrogen bonding between base pairs
to separate the strands into a Y shape known as
the replication fork. This area will be the template for
replication to begin.
2.Primer Binding
The leading strand is the simplest to replicate.
Once the DNA strands have been separated, a
short piece of RNA called a primer binds to the
3' end of the strand. The primer always binds as
the starting point for replication. Primers are
generated by the enzyme DNA primase.
3. Elongation
Enzymes known as DNA polymerases are responsible creating the
new strand by a process called elongation. There are five different
known types of DNA polymerases in bacteria and human cells. In
bacteria such as E. coli, polymerase III is the main replication
enzyme, while polymerase I, II, IV and V are responsible for error
checking and repair. DNA polymerase III binds to the strand at the
site of the primer and begins adding new base pairs complementary
to the strand during replication. In eukaryotic cells, polymerases
alpha, delta, and epsilon are the primary polymerases involved in
DNA replication. Because replication proceeds in the 5' to 3'
direction on the leading strand, the newly formed strand is
Once both the continuous and discontinuous strands are formed,
an enzyme called exonuclease removes all RNA primers from the
original strands. These primers are then replaced with appropriate
bases. Another exonuclease “proofreads” the newly formed DNA
to check, remove and replace any errors. Another enzyme
called DNA ligase joins Okazaki fragments together forming a
single unified strand. The ends of the linear DNA present a
problem as DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides in the 5′ to
3′ direction. The ends of the parent strands consist of repeated
DNA sequences called telomeres.
Transposition is related to replication, recombination and
repair. The process of moving from one place to another
involves a type of recombination, insertions of transposable
elements can cause mutations, and some transpositions are
replicative, generating a new copy while leaving the old
copy intact. However, this ability to move is a unique
property of transposable elements, and warrants treatment
by itself.
• DNA (Deoxyribonucleate) is a chemical
substance that plays a role in the succession of
information passed down through
• In a coded DNA structure / encoded
information for the synthesis of all cell
• Segments that have their own characteristics
in DNA or chromosomes are called GENs
• Information from DNA is transmitted from cell
to cell through DNA replication

• RNA (ribonucleic acid), resembling DNA but

not the same,
• RNA work is processing information encoded
in DNA for protein synthesis through
transcription and translation
• DNA, has a long structure resembling a string
of two threads / twins that are wrapped
around each other

• Each helical thread of DNA consists of

nucleotides joined to form polynucleotide
• Each nucleotide consists of 3 parts, namely:
• Cyanin-containing compounds containing nitrogen:
purine and pyrimidine
• Purines consist of adenine (A) and guanine (G)
• Pyrimidine consists of cytosine (S) and thymine (T)
• Five-carbon sugar group (pentose): deoxyribose and
• One phosphate molecule (P
• The three parts are linked together in order:
• alkaline-deoxyribose-phosphate base
• In DNA there are 4 types of nucleotides (A, G, S, T)
• In DNA there are 2 complementary bases of A-
T or G-S, with a ratio always 1: 1
• Other base comparisons are not always 1: 1,
such as A-S, S-T, A-T or G-S, the comparison
values are very specific / specific for each type
of organism, so the value is used to identify
and group bacterial taxon
• It is these two base pairs A-T and G-S that
unite the two helices through hydrogen
bonds, between A and T are connected by 2 H
bonds, while in G-S by 3 H bonds

• In the VIRUS there is no comparison of 1: 1

between A-T or G-S, so that the DNA in the
virus is single-stranded, which is not found in
other organisms
• RNA, ribonucleic acid, is different from DNA, namely:
• RNA, in general, is single

• The sugar component in RNA is ribose not

• Ribose is similar to deoxyribose except for the
presence of a hydroxyl group on number 2 carbon

• The pyrimidine-based base found in RNA is Urasil (U)

not Timin
• In general microbes / bacteria can synthesize
nucleotides from simple nutrients such as
glucose, ammonium sulfate, minerals
• In certain bacteria, nucleotides must be supplied
in a medium in a finished form
• kinase
• Nucleotide + ATP nucleotide-P + ADP
• kinase
• Nucleotide-P + ATP nucleotide-in P + ADP
• The bacterial chromosome is a double-molecule DNA
• The molecular weight is 2.5 x 106 Dalton (1 Dalton =
mass of 1 H atom)
• 1.25 mm (1250 mm) chromosome length
• Amount of DNA on chromosomes: 4 x 106
• DNA replication starts from the growing point, where
DNA strands separate at that point, forming Y,
replicating in sequence from that point in one direction
and two directions
• The growth point is attached to the cell membrane
• In DNA replication, one pacing is needed, namely
an RNA primer synthesized by RNA polymerase,
in the presence of the primer, the DNA
polymerase can synthesize deoxyribonucleotide.
• DNA replication, which is not continuous, but in
small segments called Okazaki fragments, these
segments are joined by DNA ligase enzymes
• When the growing point has moved throughout
the length of the mol. DNA is formed 2 moles of
intact DNA
• Nucleotide is a constituent of DNA
• Ad amino acid protein constituent
• DNA is composed by 4 nucleotides
• Proteins are composed by> 20 types of axes.
• Each microbe is different in its ability to
synthesize as. amino for pt synthesis, there are
those that are directly from nutrition and there
must be amino acids added to the medium
• Pt biosynthesis occurs in large ribosomes /
RNA particles (rRNA)
• Genotypic changes / gene mutations can
occur in all microbes
• Mutations are changes in the nucleotide
sequence of a gene that give rise to new
genetic characteristics, or other genotypes.
The cell / organism is called a mutant
• Mutations can occur spontaneously,
• Genetic recombination is the formation of a
new genotype after the exchange of genetic
material between 2 different chromosomes
• Gene recombination is produced by 3 types of
gene transfer, namely:
• Conjugation, transfer of genes between cells that
physically contact each other
• Transduction, transfer of bacteriophage host cell
genes into chrome. new host cell
• Transformation, transfer of pure DNA from one
cell to another, DNA-giving cells will experience

• In bacterial recombination, the cell does not

melt, usually part of the donor cell chromosome
is transferred to the recipient cell. Then this
recipient cell becomes merozygous, a partially
diploid zygote
Figure 9.1. Possible effects of movement of a transposable element in the function and
expression of the target gene. The transposable element is shown as a red rectangle, and
the target gene (X) is composed of multiple exons. Protein coding regions of exons are
green and untranslated regions are gold. The angled arrow indicates the start site for
Transposable elements can cause deletions or inversions of
DNA. When transposition generates two copies of the same
sequence in the same orientation, recombination can delete
the DNA between them. If the two copies are in the opposite
orientations, recombination will invert the DNA between
them. As part of the mechanism of transposition, additional
DNA sequences can be mobilized. DNA located between
two copies of a transposable element can be moved together
with them when they move. In this manner, transposition
can move DNA sequences that are not normally part of a
transposable element to new locations. Indeed, "host"
sequences can be acquired by viruses and propagated by
infection of other individuals
Transposition occurs by insertion into a staggered break
in a chromosome
Since the FDRs are distinctive for each copy, they are not part of the
transposable element themselves. Some families of transposable
elements do have repeated sequences at their flanks that are identical
for all members of the family, but these are integral parts of the
transposable element. The variation in sequence of the FDRs indicates
that they are generated from the target sites for the transposition
events. If the transposable element inserted into a break in the
chromosome that left a short overhang (one strand longer than the
other), and this overhang were filled in by DNA polymerase as part of
the transposition, then the sequence of that overhang would be
duplicated on each side of the new copy. Such a break with an
overhang is called a staggered break. The size of the staggered break
would determine the size of the FDR.

Bailey Regina, 2018. DNA Replication Steps and