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METODOLOGI PENELITIAN

(PARADIGMA & OVERVIEW )

Johanes C Mose

Bag. Obstetri - Ginekologi FKUP/RSHS


BANDUNG
I have six faithfull, honest, serving friends; their
names are :
1. What ?
2. Why ?
3. Who ?
PENGETAHUAN
4. Where ? (KNOWLEDGE)
5. When ? and
6. How ?

(Rudyard Kipling)
PENGETAHUAN
(KNOWLEDGE)

METODOLOGI PENELITIAN
PENELITIAN (RESEARCH)
ILMIAH

ILMU
(SCIENCE)
METODE PENELITIAN ILMIAH :

Metode / tatacara yang berisi petunjuk tentang


perencanaan yang disusun secara logis dan sistematis
untuk menemukan jawaban atas pertanyaan atau
masalah yang dihadapi.

RESEARCH is of the mind, not of the hand; a


concentration of thought and not a process of
experimentation.

RESEARCH is the effort of the mind to comprehend


relationships which no one had previously known.

(Herald De Forest Arnold)


THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH
DESIGN (Creswell JW, 2009)
Depends on :
■ Procedures of inquiry

■ Methods of data collection

■ Analysis and Interpretation

■ Nature of Research problem

■ Researchers’ personal experiences

■ The audiences for the study


PROBLEM

THREE TYPES OF DESIGN


THE THREE TYPES OF
DESIGNS

■ QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
■ QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
■ MIXED METHODS RESEARCH
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
■ Is a means for exploring and understanding
the meanings individuals or groups ascribe to
a social or human problem.
■ The process involves emerging questions and
procedures, data and analysis inductively
building from particulars to general themes,
and making interpretations of the meaning of
the data.
PARADIGMA PENELITIAN KUALITATIF

INDUKTIF

NALAR INDUKTIF-NONHIPOTETIKAL
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
■ Is a means for testing objective theories by
examining the relationship among variables.
These variables can be measured, typically
on instruments, so that numbered data can
be analysed using statistical procedures.
■ Have assumptions about testing theories
deductively, protects against bias, controlling
for alternative explanations, generalize and
replicate the findings.
PARADIGMA PENELITIAN KUANTITATIF

DEDUKTIF

NALAR DEDUKTIF-HIPOTETIKAL
MIXED METHODS RESEARCH
■ Is an approach to inquiry that combines or
associates both quantitative and qualitative
forms. It involves philosophical assumptions,
the use of both approaches, and mixing it in
a study.
■ More than simply collecting and analyzing
both kinds of data; it also involves the use of
both approaches in tandem, so overall
strength of a study is greater.
FOUR PHILOSOPHICAL WORLDVIEWS
1. POSTPOSITIVISM 2. CONSTRUCTIVISM
✓ Determination ➢ Understanding

✓ Reductionism ➢ Multiple participant

✓ Empirical observation meanings


and measurement ➢ Social and historical

✓ Theory verification construction


➢ Theory generation
FOUR PHILOSOPHICAL WORLDVIEWS
3.ADVOCACY/PARTICI 4. PRAGMATISM
PATORY ➢ Consequences of

➢ Political actions
➢ Empowerment issue- ➢ Problem-centered

oriented ➢ Pluralistic
➢ Collaborative ➢ Real-world practice

➢ Change-oriented oriented
STRATEGY OF INQUIRY
Quantitative QUALITATIVE MIXED METHODS

• Experimental • Narrative • Sequential


• Non-Experimental research • Concurrent
(Descriptive and • Phenomenology • Transformative
Analytic Designs) • Ethnographies
• Grounded theory
studies
• Case study
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
■ (Positivist/Postpositivist reseach, empirical science)
■ Comes from 19th-century writers (Comte, Mill,
Durkheim, Newton, Locke, Phillips and Burbules)
■ Identifies the causes that influence outcomes
■ Reductionistic, reduction of ideas
■ Careful observation and measurement of objective
reality: develops numeric measures of observations
■ Begins with a theory, collects data, makes
necessary revisions, and tests
Creswell JW,
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
(SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM, often
combined with INTERPRETIVISM, Mertens
1998)
■ Mannheim, Berger and Luekermann (1967)
■ Concentrates on : People’s experiences, attitudes
and beliefs, Perceptions of situation
■ Aims : to generate an UNDERSTANDING of what is
going on in an everyday setting
■ Inductively develop a Theory or pattern of
meaning Creswell JW,
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
■ Can be used to :
- Generate NEW THEORY
- Describe a point of view
- Develop Instruments
- Illustrate MEANINGS
- SENSITISE Readers
- Try to UNDERSTAND a phenomena
STRATEGIES OF INQUIRY
■ PHENOMENOLOGY
■ GROUNDED THEORY
■ ETHNOGRAPHY
■ CASE STUDY
■ NARRATIVE
■ CRITICAL THEORY
■ HERMENEUTICS
MIXED METHODS RESEARCH
■ (Pragmatism derives from the work of Pierce,
James, Mead and Dewey (1992); Rorty 1990,
Murphy 1990, Patton 1990 and Cherryholmes
1992.
■ Arises out of actions, situations and
consequences
■ Focusing attention on research problem in social
science research and then using pluralistic
approaches to derive knowledge about problem
Mixed Methods (Three general
strategy)
■ Sequential mixed methods
■ Concurrent mixed methods
■ Transformative mixed methods
SEQUENTIAL MIXED METHODS
■ Researcher seeks to elaborate on or expand on the
findings of one method with another method
■ May begin with a Qualitative interview for
exploratory purposes and following up with
quantitative survey with a large sample
■ Alternatively, the study may begin with a
quantitative method in which a theory or concept is
tested, followed by a qualitative method involving
detailed exploration with a few cases or individuals
CONCURRENT MIXED METHODS
■ The researcher converges or merges quantitative
and qualitative data in order to provide a
comprehensive analysis of the research problem.
■ Both data are collected at the same time and then
integrates the information in the interpretationof
the overall results
■ Also, the researcher may embeded one smaller
form of data within another larger data collection in
order to analyze different types of quentions
TRANSFORMATIVE MIXED METHODS

■ Uses a theoretical lens as an overarching


perspective within a design that contains both
quantitative and qualitative data
■ This lens provides a framework for topics of
interest, methods for collecting data, and outcomes
or changes anticipated by the study
■ Could be a data collection method that involves a
sequential or a concurrent approach
WRITING STRATEGY
Writing strategy
(a Quantitative format)
■ Introduction
- Statement of problem (issue, significance of issue)
- Purpose of the study and delimitations
- Theoretical perspective
- Research questions or Hypoteses

■ Review of the literatur


■ Methods (Type of reseach design, Population, sample, paerticipants, data collection
instruments, variables, and materials)

■ Anticipated ethical issues


■ Preliminary studies or pilot tests
■ Appendixes : instruments, timeline, and proposed budget
LANGKAH-LANGKAH DALAM PENELITIAN
Mencari, Menemukan, Memilih Masalah

Menyusun Latar Belakang

Mengidentifikasi dan Merumuskan Masalah
Menentukan judul Penelitian

Menyusun Kerangka Teoritis,
Kerangka Konsepsional
Tujuan Penelitian

Membuat dan Merumuskan Hipotesis

Mengumpulkan Data dan Fakta
Menentukan Desain Penelitian

lanjutan

Mengolah, Menganalisis, dan


Mengiterpretasi Data

Merumuskan Kesimpulan

Mengemukakan Makna dan
Manfaat Penelitian

Menyusun dan Menulis
Laporan Penelitian atau
Makalah Ilmiah
Judul Tesis/ Disertasi
Bab I : Pendahuluan
1.1. Latar Belakang Penelitian
1.2. Rumusan Masalah
1.3. Tujuan Penelitian
1.4. Kegunaan Penelitian (Aspek Teoritis dan Praktis)
Bab II : Kajian Pustaka, kerangka pemikiran, dan Hipotesis
2.1. Kajian Pustaka
2.2. Kerangka Pemikiran
2.3. Hipotesis
Bab III: Bahan/Objek/Subjek dan metode Penelitian
Bab IV: Hasil Penelitian dan Pembahasan
Bab V : Simpulan dan saran
Daftar Pustaka
Lampiran
BAB I : PENDAHULUAN

LATARBELAKANG RUMUSAN
PENELITIAN TEMA SENTRAL MASALAH

PROSES : LOGICO-DEDUCTO-HYPOTETICA
BAB II : KAJIAN PUSTAKA, KERANGKA PEMIKIRAN,
DAN HIPOTESIS

KAJIAN KERANGKA
PEMIKIRAN PREMIS HIPOTESIS
PUSTAKA

PROSES : LOGIGO-DEDUCTO-HYPOTETICA
BAB : III, IV

METODE, HASIL,
SIMPULAN
PEMBAHASAN

PROSES : VERIFIKATIF & GENERALISASI


BEBERAPA INKONSISTENSI
■ Latar Belakang Penelitian
■ Rumusan Masalah
■ Kajian Pustaka (vs Tinjauan Pustaka &
Kerangka Teori)
■ Kerangka Pemikiran (vs Kerangka Konsep)
■ Premis
■ Hipotesis
BAB III. SUBJEK/OBJEK/BAHAN &
METODE PENELITIAN
■ POPULASI & SAMPEL
■ KRITERIA INKLUSI & EKSKLUSI
■ BESAR SAMPEL
■ DESAIN
■ IDENTIFIKASI VARIABEL
■ DEFINISI (OPERASIONAL) VARIABEL
■ CARA KERJA & TEKNIK PENGUMPULAN DATA
■ RANCANGAN ANALISIS
■ TEMPAT DAN WAKTU PENELITIAN
■ IMPLIKASI/ASPEK ETIK
POPULASI DAN SAMPEL PENELITIAN
■ POPULASI TARGET
■ POPULASI TERJANGKAU
■ POPULASI SUMBER (SAMPEL YG
DIKEHENDAKI)
■ SAMPEL PENELITIAN (SUBJEK YANG BENAR
DITELITI)
KRITERIA INKLUSI & EKSKLUSI
METODE PENELITIAN
■ Desain
■ Variabel
■ Populasi/ sampel
■ Cara pengumpulan data
■ Cara analisis/ metode statistik
DESAIN PENELITIAN

OBSERVASIONAL/ INTERVENSIONAL/
SURVAI EKSPERIMENTAL

DESKRIPTIF ANALITIK 1. UJI KLINIS


2. INTERVENSI/
1. SURVAI 1. POTONG SILANG OPERASIONAL
2. STUDI KASUS 2. KOHORT
3. STUDI BANDING 3. KASUS-KONTROL
4. STUDI PREDIKSI
5. STUDI KORELASI
6. STUDI EVALUASI
NON INTERVENTION INTERVENTION
STUDY STUDY

• EXPLORATORY STUDY • EXPERIMENTAL STUDY


• DESCRIPTIVE STUDY • QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
• COMPARATIVE STUDY
(ANALYTICAL) STUDY
EXPLORATORY STUDIES
■ Used when little is known about the problem
■ Small scale
■ Short duration
DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES
Describes the characteristics of a particular
situation, event or case
■ Small scale……….Descriptive Case Studies

■ Large scale……...Cross-sectional Surveys


Small scale, descriptive case studies

■ Describe in-depth the characteristics of one


or limited number of cases (patient, health
care facility, village)
■ Provide insight into problem
■ Do not give information about a population
Large Scale, Cross-sectional surveys

■ Measure the prevalence of health problems


or determinants of health, or both, in a
population at a point in time or over a short
period
Comparative or Analytic Studies

Attemps to establish causes or risk factors


for certain problems

Compares two or more groups, some of which


have the problem and some not.
Types of Analytic studies

■ Cross-sectional comparative studies


■ Case-control studies
■ Cohort studies
PENELITIAN SURVAI ANALITIK

1. PENELITIAN POTONG SILANG


(CROSS SECTIONAL)
2. PENELITIAN KASUS-KONTROL
(CASE-CONTROL STUDY)
3. PENELITIAN KOHORT
(COHORT STUDY)
PENELITIAN POTONG SILANG

➢PENELITI MELAKUKAN OBSERVASI ATAU


PENGUKURAN VARIABEL PADA SATU SAAT,
SAAT YANG SAMA & SATU KALI SAJA
➢TIDAK DILAKUKAN PEMERIKSAAN/ PENG-
UKURAN ULANGAN
➢HASIL PENGUKURAN DITAMPILKAN DALAM
TABEL 2 X 2
PENELITIAN POTONG SILANG

➢RASIO PREVALENS :
✓ > 1 : FAKTOR TERSEBUT ADALAH FAKTOR
RISIKO
✓ = 1 : BUKAN FAKTOR RISIKO
✓ < 1 : FAKTOR PROTEKTIF

➢DISEBUT JUGA “STUDI PREVALENS”


RANCANGAN PENELITIAN POTONG SILANG

Populasi
(sample)

Faktor Faktor
risiko (+) risiko (-)

Efek (+) Efek (-) Efek (+) Efek (-)


PENELITIAN POTONG SILANG

➢RASIO PREVALENS = PERBANDINGAN ANTARA


JUMLAH SUBJEK DENGAN PENYAKIT (LAMA DAN
BARU) PADA SATU SAAT DENGAN SELURUH SUBJEK
YANG ADA.
➢RP = A/(A+B) : C/(C+D)
➢A/(A+B) = PROPORSI (PREVALENS) SUBJEK YANG
MEMPUNYAI FAKTOR RISIKO YANG
MENGALAMI EFEK
➢C/(C+D) = PROPORSI (PREVALENS) SUBJEK TANPA
FAKTOR RISIKO YANG MENGALAMI EFEK.
PENELITIAN KASUS-KONTROL

➢DISEBUT JUGA : - CASE COMPARISON STUDY


- CASE COMPEER STUDY
- CASE REFERENT STUDY
- RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
- TROHOC STUDY ( MENURUT FEINSTEIN, YANG
MERUPAKAN KEBALIKAN DARI COHORT)
STUDY DIMULAI DENGAN MENGIDENTIFIKASI KELOMPOK
DENGAN PENYAKIT ATAU EFEK TERTENTU (KASUS) DAN
KELOMPOK TANPA EFEK (KONTROL), KEMUDIAN SECARA
RETROSPEKTIF DITELITI FAKTOR RISIKO YANG MUNGKIN
MENJADI PENYEBAB TERJADINYA EFEK → STUDY
LONGITUDINAL SECARA RETROSPEKTIF.
RANCANGAN PENELITIAN KASUS-KONTROL

FAKTOR RISIKO (+)


KASUS/EFEK(+) RETROSPEKTIF
FAKTOR RISIKO (-)

POPULASI
(SAMPEL)

FAKTOR RISIKO (+)


KONTROL/EFEK(-) RETROSPEKTIF
FAKTOR RISIKO (-)
ANALISIS HASIL PENELITIAN :

1. RASIO ODDS

EFEK
YA TIDAK JUMLAH
---------------------------------------------------------------
FAKTOR YA A B A+B
RISIKO
TIDAK C D C+D
---------------------------------------------------------------
JUMLAH A+C B+D A+B+C+D

RASIO ODDS = AD/BC


2. PAR = POPULATION ATTRIBUTE RISK

p (r-1)
PAR = ---------------
P (r-1) –1

P = proporsi dari populasi yang terpajan [B/(B+D)]


R = Rasio Odds
PENELITIAN KOHORT

• COHORT (BAHASA ROMAWI KUNO) = SEKELOMPOK


TENTARA YANG MAJU BERBARIS KE MEDAN PERANG
• PENELITIAN LONGITUDINAL SECARA PROSPEKTIF
• FAKTOR RISIKO DIIDENTIFIKASI TERLEBIH
DAHULU, KEMUDIAN SUBJEK DIIKUTI SAMPAI
PERIODE WAKTU TERTENTU UNTUK MELIHAT TER-
JADINYA EFEK ATAU PENYAKIT YANG DITELITI.
RANCANGAN PENELITIAN KOHORT

EFEK (+)
FAKTOR RISIKO (+) PROSPEKTIF

POPULASI EFEK (-)


(SAMPEL)
EFEK (+)
FAKTOR RISIKO (-) PROSPEKTIF
EFEK (-)
ANALISIS HASIL PENELITIAN

• RISIKO RELATIF (RR) = A/(A+B) : C/(C+D)


MODIFIKASI PENELITIAN KOHORT
1. PENELITIAN KOHORT RETROSPEKTIF
➢ SAMA DENGAN PENELITIAN KOHORT, NAMUN DATA DIAMBIL
SECARA RETROSPEKTIF OLEH KARENA TELAH TERJADI PADA
MASA LALU.

2. PENELITIAN KOHORT BERGANDA


(DOUBLE COHORT STUDY)
➢ KELOMPOK DENGAN FAKTOR RISIKO MERUPAKAN KELOMPOK
YANG BERBEDA DENGAN KELOMPOK TANPA FAKTOR RISIKO.
KEDUA KELOMPOK BERBEDA INI DIAMATI SECARA
PROSPEKTIF.(DISEBUT JUGA STUDI KOHORT PROSPEKTIF
DENGAN PEMBANDING EKSTERNAL).
3. NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDY
➢ TERDAPATNYA BENTUK STUDI KASUS-KONTROL
YANG BERSARANG (NESTED) DI DALAM
RANCANGAN PENELITIAN KOHORT. DATA YANG
DIPAKAI IALAH DATA YANG DIPEROLEH DARI
STUDI KOHORT.
PENELITIAN INTERVENSIONAL/
EKSPERIMENTAL

1. UJI KLINIS
2. PENELITIAN INTERVENSI/OPERASIONAL
UJI KLINIS :

• PENELITIAN EKSPERIMENTAL TERENCANA


PADA MANUSIA
• RCT = RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL
= UJI KLINIS ACAK TERKONTROL
• HULLEY & CUMMING :
→ RBT : RANDOMIZED BLINDED TRIAL
➢ KETERSAMARAN = PEMBUTAAN =
MASKING = BLINDING
JENIS UJI KLINIS :

• TAHAP 1 : - PENELITIAN LABORATORIUM


- UJI PRE KLINIS
- INVITRO → BINATANG PERCOBAAN
- TUJUAN :
- INFORMASI FARMAKOLOGI & -
TOKSIKOLOGI
• TAHAP 2 : - FASE I - IV
- INVIVO : MANUSIA
UJI KLINIS TAHAP 2
• FASE I: - KEAMANAN (SAFETY EVALUATION)
- TOLERANSI PENGOBATAN
- 20 - 100 ORANG
• FASE II: - MENILAI EFEK OBAT (EFFICACY
EVALUATION)
- DOSIS YANG EFEKTIF
- 100-200 ORANG
• FASE III : - EVALUASI OBAT BARU DIBANDINGKAN
DENGAN OBAT STANDAR (MULTICENTRE STUDY)
1. PILOT STUDY
2. PIVOTAL WELL CONTROLLED STUDY
• FASE IV : - UJI KLINIS PASCA PASAR (POST
MARKETING)
- EFEK SAMPING OBAT PADA MASYARAKAT
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
(Portney LG, Watkins MP. FOUNDATION OF CLINICAL
RESEARCH : APPLICATIONS TO PRACTICE)
A. True Experimental designs
I. Single Factor Design for Independent Groups
1. Pretest-Posttest control group design (RCT)
2. Post test-only design
II. Multi Factor Designs for Independent Groups
3. Factorial Design:- One-way factorial design
- Two-way factorial design
- Three-way factorial design
4. Randomised Block Design
5. Nested Design
III. Repeated Measures Design
a. Single Factor Design for Repeated Measures
6. One-way Repeated Measure Design
7. Cross-over Design
8. Latin Square Design
b. Multiple Factor Design for Repeated Measures
9. Two-way Design with two repeated Measures
10.Mixed Design
B. Quasi-Experimental Design
11. One-Group Pre test-posttest Design
12. Time series Design
13. Non Equivalent Pretest-posttest control Group Design
14. Non Equivalent Posttest Only control Group Design
Rancangan Penelitian Uji
Klinis (Clinical Trial)
1. RANCANGAN PARALEL

1. RANCANGAN MENYILANG (Cross-over)


RANCANGAN UJI KLINIS PARALEL

KELOMPOK EFEK ?
PERLAKUAN
SUBJEK
PENELITI R
AN
KELOMPOK
KONTROL EFEK ?
Rancangan Penelitian Uji
Klinis (Clinical Trial)
1. RANCANGAN PARALEL

1. RANCANGAN MENYILANG (Cross-over)


RANCANGAN UJI KLINIS MENYILANG
(CROSS-OVER DESIGN)
A B’
KELOMPOK EFEK KELOMPOK EFEK
PERLAKUAN ? PERLAKUAN ?

SUBJEK
PENELITIAN R

KELOMPOK EFEK KELOMPOK EFEK


KONTROL ? PERLAKUAN ?
B A’

PERLAKUAN PERIODE PERLAKUAN


WASH OUT
HAL PENTING PADA UJI KLINIS

• KEPATUHAN PASIEN (COMPLIANCE)


• DROP OUT
• EFEK SAMPING
• PENYIMPANGAN PROTOKOL
• INFORMED CONSENT
• ASPEK ETIK
PENELITIAN INTERVENSI

• DALAM BIDANG KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT


(PUBLIC HEALTH)
• PENELITIAN OPERASIONAL (OPERATIONAL
RESEARCH) (=ACTION RESEARCH)
• 2 JENIS :
➢PENELITIAN INTERVENSI PREVENTIF

➢PENELITIAN INTERVENSI KURATIP