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RELATIONS

CONCEPT OF A RELATION
REFLEXIVE RELATION
SYMMETRIC RELATION
TRANSITIVE RELATION
EQUIVALENCE RELATION
To demonstrate/prove that a given
Relation is an equivalence relation
• CONCEPT OF A RELATION R
Let A and B be sets, then AxB = {(a,b): a∈A and
b ∈ B}. Thus a set of ordered pairs : (a,b). So
by a Relation R on A and B we mean a subset
of AxB. If A=B then a Relation R on A is the
subset of AxA
Examples of Relations
• Given that A={1,2,3,4}. Define a Relation R on
A such that (x,y) ∈ R if
a) x<y b) x=y c) y=3 d) x and y are both odd
Solution:
a) R = { (1,2) (1,3) (1,4) (2,3) (2,4) (3,4)}
Properties of Relations
• Reflexive
– Let R be a relation on a set A. Suppose that for all
a Є A, (a; a) Є R. Then we say that R is reflexive.
Symmetric
• Suppose that for all a; b Є A, (b; a) Є R whenever (a;
b) ЄR. Then we say that R is symmetric.
Transitive
• Suppose that for all a; b; c Є A, (a; c) Є R whenever
(a; b) Є R and (b; c) Є R. Then we say that R is
transitive.
Equivalence Relation
• An Equivalence Relation is reflexive,
symmetric and transitive
• A relation R on Z is defined by writing (x,y) Є
R if the Integer x – y is a multiple of 2.
• Prove that R is an equivalence relation.
Equivalence classes
Practice Exercises
1. Given a Relation R={(1.1), (1,2), (2,2)}. Is R
reflexive? The answer is YES but why is it so?
2. Let A = {1,2,3}. State relation properties of
a) R={(1,2), (2,1), (1,1), (2,2)}
b) R={(1,1), (2,2), (3,3)}
c) R={(1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (1,2)}
3. A relation R is defined by writing (p,q) Є R if the
integer p-q is a multiple of 3. Investigate
whether R is an equivalence relation or not.