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SMART MATERIALS

What are Smart Materials?

 Senses a stimulus (eyes).


 Takes an intelligent decision
(brain).
 Through electronic feedback it
takes corrective/preventive
measures to avoid catastrophic
situations (arm).
Advantages
 No moving parts.
 High reliability.
 Low power requirements.
 Provide new capabilities that are
presently not possible.
Types of Smart Materials

1. Piezoelectric Materials
2. Shape Memory Alloys
3. Magnetostrictive Materials
4. Active Fluids
5. Optical Fiber Bragg Grating
Sensors.
1. Shape Memory Alloys

 Are metals that can be deformed and


then returned to their original shape
by heating.
 Applications
 Aeronautical applications.
 Surgical tools.

Muscle wires.
History Of SMA’s
• Discovered in 1932.
• By Chang and Read.
• In 1938, Brass (CuZn).
• In 1951, Gold Cadmium (AuCd).
• Not utilized until 1962.
• Buehler and co-workers discovered
Nickel-Titanium (NiTi).
PROPERTIES
 The copper-based and Ni Ti (nickel and titanium)-based shape
memory alloys are considered to be engineering materials. These
compositions can be manufactured to almost any shape and size.
 The yield strength of shape memory alloys is lower than that of
conventional steel, but some compositions have a higher yield
strength than plastic or aluminium. The yield stress for Ni Ti can
reach 500 MPa.
 The high cost of the metal itself and the processing requirements
make it difficult and expensive to implement SMAs into a design.
As a result, these materials are used in applications where the
super elastic properties or the shape memory effect can be
exploited.
 The most common application is in actuation.
 One of the advantages to using shape memory alloys is the high
level of recoverable plastic strain that can be induced. The
maximum recoverable strain these materials can hold without
permanent damage is up to 8% for some alloys. This compares
with a maximum strain 0.5% for conventional steels.
?What are Shape Memory Alloys
Shape Memory Alloys •
(SMAs) are metallic
alloys that undergo a
Austenite
High temperature phase •
solid-to-solid phase Cubic Crystal Structure •
transformation which
can exhibit large
recoverable strains. Martensite
Example: Nitinol Low temperature phase •
Monoclinic Crystal Structure •

Twinned Martensite Detwinned Martensite


Basic working principle
• SMAs have two stable phases - the high-
temperature phase, called austenite and the low-
temperature phase, called martensite.
• the martensite can be in one of two forms:
twinned and detwinned,
• A phase transformation which occurs between
these two phases upon heating/cooling is the
basis for the unique properties of the SMAs.

http://smart.tamu.edu/overview/smaintro/simple/definition.html
The Effects of Cooling in the
Absence of an Applied Load

• Upon cooling in the absence of applied load the


material transforms from austenite into twinned
martensite. (no observable macroscopic shape
change occurs)
• Upon heating the material in the martensitic
phase, a reverse phase transformation takes
place and as a result the material transforms to
austenite.
Thermally-Induced
Transformation with Applied
Mechanical Load
• If mechanical load is applied to the material in the
state of twinned martensite (at low temperature) it is
possible to detwin the martensite.
• Upon releasing of the load, the material remains
deformed. A subsequent heating of the material to a
temperature above the austenite finish temperature
(Af) will result in reverse phase transformation
(martensite to austenite) and will lead to complete
shape recovery.
• This process results in manifestation of the Shape
Memory Effect (SME).
Thermally Induced Phase
Transformation in SMAs

Martensite TEMPERATURE
Austenit Characteristic
Mf Ms As Af
)twinned( e temperatures:
Mf=Martensitic
Finish
Ms=Martensitic Start
As=Austenitic Start
Af=Austenitic Finish

TEMPERATURE
Martensite Mf Ms As Af
Austenit
)twinned( e
•It is also possible to
induce a martensitic
transformation which
would lead directly to
detwinned martensite.
•If load is applied in the
austenitic phase and the
material is cooled, the
phase transformation
will result in detwinned
martensite. --Very large
strains (5-8%) will be
observed
Shape Recovery
• Reheating the material will result in
complete shape recovery.
• The transformation temperatures in this
case depend strongly on the magnitude of
the applied load.
– Higher applied load values will lead to higher
transformation temperatures.
– There is usually a linear relationship between
the applied load and the transformation
temperatures
Shape Memory Effect:
Stress Free Shape Recovery

Detwinned Detwinned Martensite


STRESS

STRESS
Martensite (stressed )(stressed - deformed
)- deformed

Mf Ms As Af Mf Ms As Af

Twinned Martensite Detwinned Martensite Austenite


)(unstressed (unstressed - )(undeformed
TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE
)deformed
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

 Many metals have several different crystal structures


at the same composition, but most metals do not
show this shape memory effect.
 The special property that allows shape memory
alloys to revert to their original shape after heating is
that their crystal transformation is fully reversible.
 In most crystal transformations, the atoms in the
structure will travel through the metal by diffusion,
changing the composition locally, even though the
metal as a whole is made of the same atoms.
A reversible transformation does not involve
this diffusion of atoms, instead all the atoms
shift at the same time to form a new structure,
much in the way a parallelogram can be made
out of a square by pushing on two opposing
sides.
 At different temperatures, different structures
are preferred and when the structure is cooled
through the transition temperature, the
martensitic structure forms from the austenitic
phase
RECENT ADVANCES
 Advanced liquid crystal displays may soon improve
the quality of life of anyone who uses laptop and
hand-held computers.
 A team at Kent State University was touting a new
kind of liquid crystal technology; it should lead to flat
color display panels that have much better resolution
and lower cost than current state-of-the-art LCDs.
 The smart-crystal displays will also consume far less
battery power, allowing portables to come closer to
living up to their name.
 Artificial muscles that expand and contract in a
controllable way could find numerous applications in
robotics, medical implants, even virtual reality.
  At the smart materials conference, researchers at
the University of New Mexico showed off an
artificial muscle substance that is twice as strong
as human muscles and contracts nearly as fast.
 Embedded sensors offer a way to monitor the
health of structures that undergo a lot of wear and
tear--concrete bridges and icebreaker propellers,
to name just two examples.
 Engineers hope to save both money and lives with
smart structures that warn their operators when
the load becomes more than they can bear.
Miniaturized Walking Robot

The implementation of
SMA wires coupled with
a simple DC control
system can be used to
drive small objects
without the addition of
relatively heavy motors,
gears, or drive
.mechanisms
MANUFACTURE
 Shape memory alloys are typically made by casting,
using vacuum arc melting or induction melting. These
are specialist techniques used to keep impurities in the
alloy to a minimum and ensure the metals are well
mixed.
 The ingot is then hot rolled into longer sections and
then drawn to turn it into wire.
 The way in which the alloys are "trained" depends on the
properties wanted. The "training" dictates the shape that
the alloy will remember when it is heated.
 This occurs by heating the alloy so that the
dislocations re-order into stable positions, but not so hot
that the material recrystallizes.
 They are then shaped while hot and are cooled rapidly
by quenching in water or by cooling with air.
Discussion of Application
• An advantage to this new shape memory alloy
is its’ efficiency. No other alloy or polymer can
compare to its’ strength and efficiency to
weight ratio.
• Nanomuscles weigh just one gram but can lift
140 grams, and are preferred to electric motors
as they are far cheaper to produce.
Major Specifications

• Pseudoelasticity
• Displacement Range
• Fatigue life
• Electromechanical ratio
Limitations
• Heat Dissipation
• Range of Motion
• Stiffness/Flexibility
• Relatively expensive to manufacture and machine
compared to other materials such as steel and
aluminum.
• Most SMA's have poor fatigue properties; this
means that while under the same loading
conditions (i.e. twisting, bending, compressing) a
steel component may survive for more than one
hundred times more cycles than an SMA element.
Cost Information

Nanomuscles cost 50 cents each compared


. to US$300 for an equivalent electric motor
APPLICATION OF SMA’S

:Fire security and Protection systems


Lines that carry highly flammable and toxic
fluids and gases must have a great amount of
control to prevent catastrophic events.
 Systems can be programmed with memory
metals to immediately shut down in the
presence of increased heat.
This can greatly decrease devastating
problems in industries that involve
petrochemicals, semiconductors,
pharmaceuticals, and large oil and gas boilers.
: Major applications
Nanomuscles
Surgical instruments
Tissue Spreader 
)Stents (angioplasty
Coronary Probe 
Brain Spatula 
Endoscopy: miniature zoom
device, bending actuator
Force sensor
Smart skin (wing turbulence
)reduction
Bioengineering
: Bones
Broken bones can be mended with shape memory alloys.
The alloy plate has a memory transfer temperature that is
close to body temperature, and is attached to both ends
of the broken bone.
From body heat, the plate wants to contract and retain
its original shape, therefore exerting a compression force
on the broken bone at the place of fracture.
After the bone has healed, the plate continues exerting
the compressive force, and aids in strengthening during
rehabilitation
.
Reinforcement for Arteries and Veins: For
clogged blood vessels, an alloy tube is crushed
and inserted into the clogged veins. The memory
metal has a memory transfer temperature close
to body heat, so the memory metal expands to
.open the clogged arteries

Dental wires: used for braces and dental arch wires,


memory alloys maintain their shape since they are at a
constant temperature, and because of the super elasticity
of the memory metal, the wires retain their original
.shape after stress has been applied and removed
:Example of Biomedical Application

The Superelasticity
of NiTinol appears
to be much more
physiologic
compared to
stainless steel, for
.example
Helicopter blades: Performance for helicopter blades
depend on vibrations; with memory metals in micro
processing control tabs for the trailing ends of the
.blades, pilots can fly with increased precision
Eyeglass Frames: In certain commercials, eyeglass
companies demonstrate eyeglass frames that can be bent
back and forth, and retain their shape. These frames are
made from memory metals as well, and demonstrate
.super-elasticity
Tubes, Wires, and Ribbons: For many applications that
deal with a heated fluid flowing through tubes, or wire
and ribbon applications where it is crucial for the alloys
to maintain their shape in the midst of a heated
.environment, memory metals are ideal
Aircraft
Boeing, General Electric Aircraft Engines, Goodrich
Corporation, NASA, and All Nippon Airways developed
the Variable Geometry Chevron using shape memory
.alloy that reduces aircraft's engine noise

Piping
The first consumer commercial application for the material
was as a shape memory coupling for piping, e.g. oil line
pipes for industrial applications, water pipes and similar
types of piping for consumer/commercial applications. On
average, 50% of all peripheral vascular stents currently
available on the worldwide market are manufactured with
.Nitinol
Robotics
There have also been limited studies on using these
materials in robotics, as they make it possible to create very
light robots. Weak points of the technology are energy
.inefficiency, slow response times, and large hysteresis
Nitinol wire is also used in robotics (e.g. the hobbyist
robot Stiquito) and in a few magic tricks, particularly those
.involving heat and shapeshifting
Optometry

Eyeglass frames made from titanium-containing SMAs are


marketed under the trademarks Flexon and TITANflex.
These frames are usually made out of shape memory alloys
that have their transition temperature set below the expected
room temperature.
This allows the frames to undergo large deformation under
stress, yet regain their intended shape once the metal is
unloaded again.
The very large apparently elastic strains are due to the stress-
induced martensitic effect, where the crystal structure can
transform under loading, allowing the shape to change
temporarily under load.
This means that eyeglasses made of shape memory alloys are
more robust against being accidentally damaged
2.Piezoelectric Materials

 Expand and contract with the


application of voltage.
 Piezoceramics are the most widely
used smart material.
 Applications
 Ink Jet Printers.
 Sonar.
 Medical Diagnostics.
 High frequency stereo-speakers.
 Computer Keyboards.
 Microphones.
APPLICATIONS •

 The best-known application is the electric cigarette lighter:


pressing the button causes a spring-loaded hammer to hit a
piezoelectric crystal, producing a sufficiently high voltage
electric current that flows across a small spark gap, thus
heating and igniting the gas.
 A piezoelectric transformer is a type of AC voltage multiplier.
Unlike a conventional transformer, which uses magnetic
coupling between input and output, the piezoelectric
transformer uses acoustic coupling.
 An input voltage is applied across a short length of a bar of
piezoceramic material such as PZT, creating an alternating
stress in the bar by the inverse piezoelectric effect and
causing the whole bar to vibrate..
 Piezo transformers are some of the most compact high
voltage sources
3. Magnetostrictive Materials

 Expand and contract with the


application of magnetic fields.
 Applications
 High-power sonar transducers.
 Motors.
 Hydraulic actuators.
4. Active Fluids

 Respond to an electric
(electrorhelogical) or a magnetic
(magnetorheological) field with a
change in viscosity.
 Applications

Tunable dampers.

Vibration-isolation systems.

Clutches.
 Brakes.
 Resistance Controls.
5. Optical Fiber Bragg Grating
Sensors
 Respond to strain and temperature
by a shift in their optical wavelength.
CONCLUSION
 Smart materials have a tremendous
potential in the future.
 Some everyday items are already
incorporating smart materials (coffeepots,
cars, the International Space Station,
eyeglasses) and the number of applications
for them is growing steadily.
 These "smart materials" are just starting to
emerge from the laboratory, but soon you
can expect to find them in everything from
laptop computers to concrete bridges.