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WATER & MINERALS

AIR TUBUH
TOTAL 70% LBM (D2O, ANTIPIRIN)

INTRASEL [50%] EKSTRASEL [20%]


(MANITOL / INULIN)

◘ INTERSTISIAL [15%]

◘ PLASMA [5%]
(EVANS BLUE /
I131-ALB /
P32-ERITR)
◘ BONE / TRANSCELL
WATER BALANCE
“INTAKE” (ml) “OUTPUT” (ml)

ASAL OBLIGA FAKUL ASAL OBLIGA FAKUL


TORIK TATIF TORIK TATIF

MINUM 650 1000 URINA 700 1000


KULIT 500
750 PARU2 400
MAKANAN
FESES 150

OKSIDASI 350

SUBTOTAL 1750 1000 SUBTOTAL 1750 1000

TOTAL 2750 TOTAL 2750


Comparison of the mean concentrations of various
molecules outside and inside a mammalian cell
Minerals and trace elements
CALCIUM

MOST ABUNDANT ESCENTIAL MINERAL : 1200 g/70 kg


(99% in the bones and teeth)

Functions :
◘ bones and teeth formation
◘ enzyme activation (cofactor)
◘ muscle contraction
◘ hormones secretion
◘ 2nd messenger
◘ membrane permeability
CALCIUM ABSORPTION

◘ Growth
◘ High protein diet
( lysine, arginine, histidine, tryptophane, methionine,
isoleucine)
◘ Lactose
◘ Low pH

◘ Fats / fatty acids


◘ Ca/P rasio (optimal 1:1)
◘ Oxalic acid / phytate
◘ High pH
Average Bone Density with Age and Fracture Threshold
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM HYPERCALCEMIA

HYPOPARATHYROIDISM HYPOCALCEMIA

HYPOPVITAMINOSIS D RICKETS
PHOSPHOROUS

FUNCTIONS :

◘ development of bones and teeth (80-90%)


◘ phosphorylation processes
◘ part of DNA and RNA
◘ as phospholipids
◘ buffer system
MAGNESIUM

FUNCTIONS :

◘ 70% in bone and teeth

◘ intracell enzyme cofactors

(ATP ase)

ALCOHOL urinary excretion of Mg

Low Mg tremor/convulsions
SODIUM
EXTRACELLULAR CATHION

HYPONATREMIA

CAUSES : ▪ CORTEX ADRENAL INSUFICIENCY


▪ DIARHEA
▪ SWEAT
▪ CHRONIC RENAL DISEASES

HYPERNATREMIA

CAUSES : ▪ SODIUM INTAKE


▪ CUSHING DISEASE

Cl Na
POTASIUM
INTRACELLULAR CATHION

Hypokalemia : ▪ malnutrition
▪ diarhea
▪ Cushing syndrome
▪ diuretics

Muscle weakness

Hyperkalemia : ▪ renal failure


▪ dehydration
▪ Addison disease

Cardiac muscle and nerve depression


Sequential Changes in the Development of iron Deficiency