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Communication Skills

Presented by
Sanam Habib
• Introduction
• Definition of communication,
• Elements of communication
• Types of communications
• Communication process
• Characteristics of effective communication
• Knowledge and skills needed for effective inter
personal communication
• Barriers to effective communication
What is Communication…?
• Communication: Communication has been derived
from the Latin word "communis", meaning to share.

• Exchange of information or giving or taking of it

• Or a process through which facts, ideas, experience
s and emotions are mutually exchanged


purposes of communication
• The purposes of communication are:-
• understood what is intended to be understood.
• To obtain reply / response / feedback,
• To maintain good relations with communicator.
• The means of communication are usually:- spok
en or written words,
• pictures or symbols.
• But we also give information through body languag
e, gestures,
• and looks, facial expressions etc.
Communication for self development
Communication helps in self development by following ways:-
i. In acquiring knowledge.
ii. In acquiring information.
iii. In avoiding mistakes.
iv. In making correct decisions or planning.
v. In contacts / coordination with others.
vi. In exchanging / acquiring experiences.
vii. In association with latest conditions.
viii. In knowing other's expectations from you.
ix. In enhancing confidence.
Xi. In development of self- capabilities.
Is Affected By...
 Personal Factors
 mood
 energy level / fatigue
 body language
 Environment
 noise
 temperature
 other distractions
 Whether we use old technology or new, effective communication
includes active listening, choosing our words carefully and
matching them with our body language.
Communication Key Elements
•Source (sender)
The Communication Process


(encodes) (decodes)

Process of Communication
Messages not delivered due to “distortion”


Sender Receiver

What causes distortion?
• Speaker • Listener
– Language – Perceptions
– Wordiness – Preconceived notions/expec
– Semantics tations
– Emotions – Physical hearing problem
– Inflections – Speed of thought
– Personal interests
– Emotions
– Attention span
– No active listening!
What are the most common ways
we communicate?

Written Word
Characteristics of effective
Effective communication requires the sender to:

• Know the subject well

• Be interested in the subject
• Know the audience members and establish a rapport
with them
• Speak at the level of the receiver
• Choose an appropriate communication channel
Characteristics of effective
The receiver should:
• Be aware, interested, and willing to accept the messa
• Listen attentively
• Understand the value of the message
• Provide feedback
Always think ahead about what you are going to say.
Use simple words and phrases that are understood by every body.
Increase your knowledge on all subjects you are required to speak.
Speak clearly and audibly.
Check twice with the listener whether you have been understood accurately or
In case of an interruption, always do a little recap of what has been already said.
Always pay undivided attention to the speaker while listening.
While listening, always make notes of important points.
Always ask for clarification if you have failed to grasp other’s point of view.
Repeat what the speaker has said to check whether you have understood
Do not instantly react and mutter something in anger.
Do not use technical terms & terminologies not understood by majority of
Do not speak too fast or too slow.
Do not speak in inaudible surroundings, as you won’t be heard.
Do not assume that every body understands you.
While listening do not glance here and there as it might distract the speaker.
Do not interrupt the speaker.
Do not jump to the conclusion that you have understood every thing.
Effective Communication

Basic Communication Skills

Being an effective communicator means that you correctly interpret the
messages you receive and respond appropriately.
Three basic skills are needed for
effective communication:

1. Speaking

2. Listening

3. Body language
Effective Communication

Communication Styles
• Passive communicators do not stand up for themselves or
defend their attitudes or beliefs.

• Aggressive communicators often try to get their way

through bullying and intimidation.

• Assertive communicators defend their attitudes and

beliefs, but they also respect the rights of others.
Effective Communication

Speaking Skills
• You demonstrate good speaking skills
when you clearly say what you mean.

• Changes in the tone, pitch, or

loudness of your voice can affect

• Using “I” messages can help you

communicate your feelings positively,
without blame or name-calling.
Effective Communication
Stating Your Feelings Effectively
Effective Communication

Nonverbal Communication
• You use Body Language when you nod or shake your head to show
that you agree or disagree with something that is said.

• When you hold yourself in a tense posture, you silently communicate

that you’re feeling nervous or worried.

• Nonverbal communication can be subtle, taking place at an

unconscious level.

• If your words and your body language seem to contradict each other,
the person you are speaking to may be confused or unsure of what
to believe.
Barriers to effective communication
Eliminating Communication Barriers

Obstacles to Clear Communication

• Image and identity issues

• Unrealistic expectations

• Lack of trust

• Prejudice

• Gender stereotyping
Eliminating Communication Barriers

Image and Identity Issues

• Many teens spend at least part of their teen years

searching for an identity.

• If someone is unsure of his or her values, the

uncertainty can complicate the communication
Eliminating Communication Barriers

Unrealistic Expectations

• Avoid imposing unrealistic

expectations on your listener.

• This may cause the individual to

become frustrated or defensive.
Eliminating Communication Barriers

Lack of Trust
• Good communication is built on
trust between two people.

• If you believe that you can’t count

on a person to tell you the truth or
to keep a confidence,
communication is very difficult.
Eliminating Communication Barriers

• Prejudice prevents a person from having an open mind

and listening to new information.

• To avoid developing prejudices, you can demonstrate

• Being tolerant helps you understand the differences among
people and recognize the value of diversity.
Eliminating Communication Barriers
Gender Stereotyping

• Gender stereotyping is a type of prejudice

that involves having an exaggerated or
oversimplified belief about people of a certain

• Assuming that all males like sports and that

all females enjoy cooking are examples of
gender stereotyping.
Constructive Feedback
Constructive Criticism
• Constructive Criticism is intended to bring about positive

• You may find that giving the person feedback in a more

positive manner helps him or her and your relationship.

• It is very important to begin your discussion by using an “I”

message to explain how you feel.

• Point out what the person is doing or has done, and suggest a
better way to do it.
Acknowledgements and Compliments

Expressing Yourself
• Expressing and receiving respect,
admiration, and appreciation with
grace and sincerity can help you build
and maintain healthy relationships.

• It shows that you do not take the

relationship for granted, and it
demonstrates good sportsmanship
and good character.
• 1. COMPLETENESS: Message is complete from all
angles and replies all possible questions. Thus it requires
remembering five W’s i.e. who, what, when, where, and w
hy; answers all questions; and gives extra information wh
en desirable.
• 2. CONCISENESS: It is saying what we have to say in the
fewest possible words without sacrificing other ‘C’ qualities. Th
us only relevant material is given and un-necessary details or r
epetitions avoided.
• 3. CONSIDERATION: ‘You’ instead of ‘I’ attit
ude. Receiver could see his personal benefits. Suc
h messages are prepared by putting oneself in rec
eiver’s situation and looking from his angles. Positi
ve and interesting facts are highlighted.

• 4. CONCRETENESS: The communication sh

ould be specific, meaningful and explicit, no vague or g
eneral message. Understandable facts / will for action i
s expressed.
• 5. CLARITY: Simple and forceful language, no con
fusing words or sentences, so that the message is u
nderstood as it is intended. Thus it will require choo
sing precise, concrete, and familiar words; construct
ing effective sentences and paragraphs.

• 6. COURTESY: Such words and phrases be used

which do not show offensiveness or irritate a person
, unless so intended. Normally ‘humble’ style is pref
erred. It, thus, involves being aware not only of the
perspectives of others, but also their feelings. It ste
ms from a sincere you-attitude and requires one to
be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative; use
s expression that shows respect and chooses non d
iscriminatory expression, and omits questionable hu
• Free from grammatical mistakes and figures
& facts are correct. It , thus, is use of right le
vel of language i.e. grammatically correct wi
th no spelling mistakes; accuracy of figures,
facts and words; and maintains acceptable
writing mechanics.
Success for YOU…

…in the new global and diverse

workplace requires
excellent communication skills!
With a partner/group, communicate with your partner
and try you explore his interest, likes, dislikes,
habits, aims and future plan.
Must take a writing pad with you and note down all
the detail of your partner and try to explore the most
interesting thing in your partner.