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COMPLEX INFINITE SERIES

&
COMPLEX POWER SERIES
DISK OF CONVERGENCE

GROUP 1 ;
 FREDY PRATAMA (18033005)
 MUTIARA DIER (18033008)
 HENI KARTIKA (18033031)
 NELLY ZAMRIANI (18033102)
The partial sums of a series of complex numbers will be
complex number, say Sn = Xn + iYn, where Xn and Yn are real.
Convergence is defined just as for real series; if Sn approaches
a limit S = X+ iY as n → ∞, we call the series of convergence
and call S is sums. This means that Xn → X and Yn → Y ; in
another words, the real and imaginary part of the series are
each convergence series.
TEST EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SERIES FOR CONVERGENCE
1) ∑ (1+ i)n
𝟏
2) ∑
(𝟏+𝒊)𝒏

(𝒊−𝟏)𝒏
3) ∑
𝒏
𝟏+𝒊 𝒏
4) ∑
𝟏−𝒊 𝟑

𝟏+𝒊 𝒏
5) ∑
𝟐−𝒊
ANSWER 1
• ∑ (1+ i)n

Using ratio formula


𝟏
𝝆= 𝟏+𝒊 𝒏 ×
𝟏+𝒊 𝒏

𝝆 = (1+i) → we must know the amount of i. We use conjugate of


complex number
𝒁 = 𝒁 ×ℤ
= 𝟏 + 𝒊) (𝟏 − 𝒊
= 𝟐
𝝆 = 𝟐 = 1,4 → divergence, because if 𝝆 > 1 the series is divergence
ANSWER 2
𝟏
• ∑∞
𝒏=𝟏 → using ratio test
𝟏+𝒊 𝒏
𝟏
𝒂= 𝒏
𝟏+𝒊

𝟏
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 =
𝟏 + 𝒊 𝒏+𝟏
𝟏 𝟏+𝒊 𝒏
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒏+𝟏
×
𝒏→∞ 𝟏 + 𝒊 𝟏
𝟏
𝝆=
𝟏+𝒊
𝒁 = 𝒁 ×ℤ= 𝟏 + 𝒊 × 𝟏 − 𝒊 = 𝟐 → conjugate of complex
number
𝟏
𝝆= = 𝟎, 𝟕 → 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆, 𝒃𝒆𝒄𝒂𝒖𝒔𝒆 𝝆 < 𝟏
𝟐
ANSWER 3
(𝒊−𝟏) 𝒏

• ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝒏
𝒊−𝟏 𝒏
𝒂=
𝒏
𝒂 𝒊−𝟏 𝒏+𝟏
𝒏+𝟏 =
𝒏+𝟏
𝒊−𝟏 𝒏+𝟏 𝒏
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 × 𝒏
𝒏→∞ 𝒏+𝟏 𝒊−𝟏
𝝆= 𝒊−𝟏
𝒁 = 𝒁×ℤ= 𝒊 − 𝟏 × 𝒊 + 𝟏 = − 𝟐 → conjugate of complex
number
𝝆 = − 𝟐 = −𝟏, 𝟒 → 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆, 𝒃𝒆𝒄𝒂𝒖𝒔𝒆 ρ < 1
ANSWER 4
∞ 𝟏+𝒊 𝒏
• ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝟏−𝒊 𝟑
𝒏
𝟏+𝒊
𝒂=
𝟏−𝒊 𝟑
𝒏+𝟏
𝟏+𝒊
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 =
𝟏−𝒊 𝟑
𝒏+𝟏 𝒏
𝟏+𝒊 𝟏−𝒊 𝟑
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 ×
𝒏→∞ 𝟏−𝒊 𝟑 𝟏+𝒊
𝟏+𝒊
𝝆=
𝟏−𝒊 𝟑
𝟏+𝒊 𝟏−𝒊 𝟏
𝒁 = 𝒁×ℤ = × =
𝟏−𝒊 𝟑 𝟏+𝒊 𝟑 𝟐

𝟏
𝝆= = 𝟎, 𝟕 → 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒆𝒔, 𝒃𝒆𝒄𝒂𝒖𝒔𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝝆 < 𝟏
𝟐
ANSWER 5
∞ 𝟏+𝒊 𝒏
• ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝟐−𝒊
𝒏
𝟏+𝒊
𝒂=
𝟐−𝒊
𝒏+𝟏
𝟏+𝒊
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 =
𝟐−𝒊
𝒏+𝟏 𝒏
𝟏+𝒊 𝟐−𝒊
𝝆 = ×
𝟐−𝒊 𝟏+𝒊
𝟏+𝒊
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎
𝒏→∞ 𝟐−𝒊
𝟏+𝒊 𝟐+𝒊 𝟐 𝟐
𝒁 = 𝒁×ℤ = 𝟐−𝒊
× 𝟏−𝒊
= 𝟒−𝒊𝟐
= 𝟓

𝟐
𝝆 = = 𝟎, 𝟔 → 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆, 𝒃𝒆𝒄𝒂𝒖𝒔𝒆 𝝆 < 𝟏
𝟓
COMPLEX POWER SERIES; DISK OF
CONVERGENCE

The series convergence if 𝜌 < 1 that is, if


𝑍 < 1, or 𝑥 2 × 𝑦 2 < 1. This is the interior of a
disk af radius 1 with center at the origin in the
complex plane. This disk is called the disk of
convergence of the infinite series and the radius of
the disk is called the radius of convergence
FIND THE DISK OF CONVERGENCE FOR EACH OF FOLLOWING
COMPLEX POWER SERIES

1. ∑∞
𝒏=𝟎 𝒛 𝒏

∞ 𝒛 𝒏
2. ∑𝒏=𝟎
𝟐
∞ 𝒛𝒏
3. ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝒏

∞ 𝒏 ! 𝟑 𝒛𝒏
4. ∑𝒏=𝟎
𝟑𝒏 !
∞ 𝒛−𝟏 𝒏
5. ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝒏
ANSWER 1
• ∑∞
𝒏=𝟎 𝒛 𝒏

To find the disk we use the ratio test, and then look at the interval
of complex numbers
𝒂 = 𝒛𝒏
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 =𝒛𝒏+𝟏
𝒏+𝟏
𝟏
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒛 × 𝒏
𝒏→∞ 𝒛

𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝒛
𝒏→∞
−𝟏 < 𝒛 < 𝟏
So, the disk in exist on interval (1,-1), (-1,1)
ANSWER 2
∞ 𝒛 𝒏
• ∑𝒏=𝟎
𝟐
𝒛 𝒏
𝒂=
𝟐
𝒂 𝒛 𝒏+𝟏
𝒏+𝟏 = 𝟐

𝒏+𝟏 𝒏
𝒛 𝟐
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 ×
𝒏→∞ 𝟐 𝒛
𝒛
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎
𝒏→∞ 𝟐
𝒛
−𝟏 < < 𝟏
𝟐
−𝟐 < 𝒛 < 𝟐
So, the disk of convergence is exist on interval (2,-2) & (-2,2)
ANSWER 3
∞ 𝒛𝒏
• ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝒏

𝒛𝒏 𝒛𝒏
𝒂= = 𝟏ൗ
𝒏 𝒏 𝟐
𝒛𝒏+𝟏
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 = 𝟏ൗ
(𝒏 + 𝟏) 𝟐
𝟏
𝒛𝒏+𝟏 𝒏 ൗ𝟐
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝟏ൗ
× 𝒏 = 𝒛
𝒏→∞
(𝒏 + 𝟏) 𝟐 𝒛
−𝟏 < 𝒛 < 𝟏

So, the disk is exist on interval (1,-1) & (-1,1)


ANSWER 4

∞ 𝒏 ! 𝟑 𝒛𝒏
• ∑𝒏=𝟎
𝟑𝒏 !
𝒏 ! 𝟑 𝒛𝒏
𝒂=
𝟑𝒏 !
𝒏 + 𝟏 ! 𝟑 𝒛𝒏+𝟏
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 =
𝟑𝒏 + 𝟏 !
𝒏 + 𝟏 ! 𝟑 𝒛𝒏+𝟏 𝟑𝒏 !
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 × 𝟑 𝒏
= 𝒍𝒊𝒎 𝟏
𝒏→∞ 𝟑𝒏 + 𝟏 ! 𝒏! 𝒛 𝒏→∞

𝝆 =𝟏

→ 𝒊𝒕𝒔 𝒂 𝒅𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒆𝒔, 𝒔𝒐, 𝒏𝒐𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒅𝒊𝒔𝒌 𝒐𝒇 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆


ANSWER 5
∞ 𝒛−𝟏 𝒏
• ∑𝒏=𝟏
𝒏
𝒛−𝟏 𝒏
𝒂=
𝒏
𝒛 − 𝟏 𝒏+𝟏
𝒂𝒏+𝟏 =
𝒏+𝟏
𝒛 − 𝟏 𝒏+𝟏 𝒏
𝝆 = 𝒍𝒊𝒎 × 𝒏
= 𝒛−𝟏
𝒏→∞ 𝒏+𝟏 𝒛−𝟏
−𝟏 < 𝒛 − 𝟏 < 𝟏
−𝟏 + 𝟏 < 𝒛 < 𝟏 + 𝟏
𝟎 <𝒛 <𝟐