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IAEA Standard syllabus course on Radiation Protection in diagnostic and interventional

radiology

PROTECTIA RADIOLOGICA
IN DIAGNOSTICUL
RADIOLOGIC

Optimizarea protectiei in fluoroscopie


Introducere:
 Echipamentul de fluoroscopie si
accesorii
 Diverse componente electronice care
contribuie la formarea imaginei in
fluoroscopie.
 Rolul lor si politica de Controlul Calitatii.

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Continut:
 Exemple de sisteme fluoroscopice
 Componenta and parametrii
Intensificatorul de Imagine
 Intensificatorul de Imagine si sistemul
TV

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Scop:
Familiarizarea cursantilor privind
componentele sistemului fluoroscopic
( parametrii care afecteaza calitatea
imaginei si Controlul Calitatii).

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IAEA Standard syllabus course on Radiation Protection in diagnostic and interventional
radiology

Optimizarea protectiei in
fluoroscopie

Exemple de sisteme fluoroscopice


Fluoroscopia

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Diverse sisteme fluoroscopice:
 Sisteme de control de la
distanta
 Nu necesita prezenta
medicului in interiorul camerei
de radiatii X
 Arc mobil, in forma de C
 Cel mai folosit in interventiile
chirurgicale.

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continuare:
 Sisteme de radiologie interventionala
 Necesita consideratii specifice de
siguranta,interventionistii fiind aproape
de pacient.

 Sisteme fluoroscopice
multifunctionale
 Folosite fie ca sisteme clasice de
fluoroscopie , fie pentru proceduri
interventionale simple

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IAEA Standard syllabus course on Radiation Protection in diagnostic and interventional
radiology

Optimizarea protectiei in
fluoroscopie

Componenta si parametrii-Intensificator de
Imagine
Intensificatorul de Imagine
(I.I.)
Ecran Intrare II
Electrod E1
Electrod E2
Electrod E3

Ecran Esire II

Fotocatoda
+
Intensificatorul de Imagine

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Componentele
Intensificatorului de Imagine
 Ecranul de Intrare: realizeaza conversia radiatiei X
incidente in fotoni de lumina (CsI)
1 foton X creaza  3.000 fotoni de lumina
 Fotocatoda:realizeaza conversia fotonilor de lumina
in electroni
 numai 10 pana la 20% din fotonii de lumina sunt
convertiti in fotoelectroni
 Electrozii : focalizeaza electronii spre ecranul de Esire
 Electrozii realizeaza multiplicarea electronica
 Ecranul de Esire:realizeaza conversia electronilor
accelerati in fotoni de lumina
Parametrii Intensificatorului de
Imagine (I)
 Coeficientul de conversie(Gx): raportul intre
luminozitatea ecranului de Esire si debitul dozei la
ecranul de Intrare [cd.m Gys ] -2 -1

 Gx depinde de calitatea fasciculului incident (Publicatia IEC nr.


573 recomanda un HVL de 7  0.2 mm Al)
 Gx este direct proportional cu:
Potentialul aplicat pe tub
Diametrul () ecranul de Intrare
 I.I. ecran () de 22 cm  Gx = 200
 I.I. ecran () de 16 cm  Gx = 200 x (16/22)2 = 105
 I.I. ecran () de 11 cm  Gx = 200 x (11/22)2 = 50
continuare parametrii I.I.: (II)
 Uniformitatea luminozitatii: luminozitatea ecranului
de Intrare poate varia de la centrul I.I. la periferie

Uniformitatea = (Luminozitatea(c) - Luminozitatea(p)) x 100 /


Luminozitatea(c)

Diformarea geometrica:toate I.I.prezinta intr-un


anumit grad diformarea pernutei de ace.Fenomenul
este cauzat fie de contaminarea magnetica a tubului
de imagine sau de instalarea intensificatorului intr-un
puternic camp magnetic
Diformarea imaginei
continuare parametrii I.I.: (III)
 Limita de rezolutie spatiala: valoarea celei mai mari
frecvente spatiale ce poate fi detectata vizual
 Ea reprezinta o masura sensibila a starii de focalizare a unui
sistem
 Este evaluata de producatorsi uzual este masurata optic si in
conditii complet optimizate.Aceasta valuare se coreleaza
foarte bine cu limita de frecventa inalta a Functiei de Transfer a
Modulatiei (MTF)
 Ea poate fi estimata cu sistemul Hüttner pentru determinarea
rezolutiei,care trebuie sa contina mai multe cercuri la fiecare
frecventa, pentru a simula periodicitatea
Line pair gauges
Line pair gauges
GOOD RESOLUTION POOR RESOLUTION
Image intensifier parameters (IV)
 Overall image quality - threshold contrast-detail
detection
 X-ray, electrons and light scatter process in an I.I. can result in a
significant loss of contrast of radiological detail. The degree of
contrast exhibited by an I.I. is defined by the design of the image
tube and coupling optics.
 Spurious sources of contrast loss are:
 accumulation of dust and dirt on the various optical surfaces
 reduction in the quality of the vacuum
 aging process (destruction of phosphor screen)
 Sources of noise are:
 X-ray quantum mottle
 photo-conversion processes, film granularity, film processing
Image intensifier parameters (V)
 Overall image quality can be assessed using a
suitable threshold contrast-detail detectability test
object which comprises an array of disc-shaped metal
details and gives a range of diameters and X-ray
transmission
 Sources of image degradation such as contrast loss,
noise and unsharpness limit the number of details that
are visible.
 If performance is regularly monitored using this test,
any sudden or gradual deterioration in image quality
can be detected as a reduction in the number of low
contrast and/or small details.
Overall image quality
IAEA Standard syllabus course on Radiation Protection in diagnostic and interventional
radiology

Part 16.1 : Optimization of


protection in fluoroscopy

Topic 3 : Image Intensifier and TV


system
Image intensifier - TV system
 Output screen image can be transferred to
different optical displaying systems:
 conventional TV
 262,5 odd lines and 262,5 even lines generating a full
frame of 525 lines (in USA)
 625 lines and 25 full frames/s up to 1000 lines (in Europe)
 interlaced mode is used to prevent flickering
 cinema
 35 mm film format: from 25 to 150 images/s
 photography
 rolled film of 105 mm: max 6 images/s
 film of 100 mm x 100 mm
X-RAY TUBE kV

PM REFERENCE CONTROLLER
FILM
kV
VIDICON

GENERAL SCHEME OF FLUOROSCOPY


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kV
X-RAY TUBE

CINE MODE

I2 I3
CONTROLLER

I1

PM C1 C2 Ref.
FILM
VIDICON

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Type of TV camera
 VIDICON TV camera
 improvement of contrast
 improvement of signal to noise ratio
 high image lag

 PLUMBICON TV camera (suitable for cardiology)


 lower image lag (follow up of organ motions)
 higher quantum noise level
 CCD TV camera (digital fluoroscopy)
 digitalfluoroscopy spot films are limited in resolution,
since they depend on the TV camera (no better than
about 2 lp/mm) for a 1000 line TV system
TV camera and video signal (I)

 The output phosphor of the image intensifier is


optically coupled to a television camera system. A pair
of lenses focuses the output image onto the input
surface of the television camera.
 Often a beam splitting mirror is interposed between
the two lenses. The purpose of this mirror is to reflect
part of the light produced by the image intensifier onto
a 100 mm camera or cine camera.
 Typically, the mirror will reflect 90% of the incident light
and transmit 10% onto the television camera.
TV camera and video signal (II)

 Older fluoroscopy equipment will have a


television system using a camera tube.
 The camera tube has a glass envelope
containing a thin conductive layer coated onto
the inside surface of the glass envelope.
 In a PLUMBICON tube, this material is made
out of lead oxide, whereas antimony
trisulphide is used in a VIDICON tube.
Photoconductive camera tube
Steering coils Deviation coil
Alignement coil
Focussing optical lens Photoconductive layer Accelarator grids
Input plate Control grid

Electron beam

Iris
Video Signal

Electron gun
Signal electrode Field grid Electrode
TV camera and video signal (III)
 The surface of the photoconductor is scanned
with an electron beam and the amount of
current flowing is related to the amount of light
falling on the television camera input surface.
 The scanning electron beam is produced by a
heated photocathode. Electrons are emitted
into the vacuum and accelerated across the
television camera tube by applying a voltage.
The electron beam is focussed by a set of
focussing coils.
TV camera and video signal (IV)
 This scanning electron beam moves across the surface
of the TV camera tube in a series of lines.
 This is achieved by a series of external coils, which are
placed on the outside of the camera tube. In a typical
television system, the image is formed from a set of
625 lines. On the first pass the set of odd numbered
lines are scanned followed by the even numbers. This
type of image is called interlaced.
 The purpose of interlacing is to prevent flickering of
the television image on the monitor, by increasing the
apparent frequency of frames (50 half frames/second).
 In Europe, 25 frames are updated every second.
Different types of scanning
11
1
INTERLACED
13 12 SCANNING
3 2
15 14
5 4
17
625 lines in 40 ms
16 i.e. : 25 frames/s
7 6
19 18
9 8
21 20
10
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8 PROGRESSIVE
9 10 SCANNING
11 12
13 14
15 16
17 18
TV camera and video signal (V)

 On most fluoroscopy units, the resolution of


the system is governed by the number of
lines of the television system.
 Thus, it is possible to improve the high
contrast resolution by increasing the number
of television lines.
 Some systems have 1,000 lines and
prototype systems with 2,000 lines are being
developed.
TV camera and video signal (VI)

 Many modern fluoroscopy systems used CCD (charge


coupled devices) TV cameras.
 The front surface is a mosaic of detectors from which
a signal is derived.
 The video signal comprises a set of repetitive
synchronizing pulses. In between there is a signal
that is produced by the light falling on the camera
surface. The synchronizing voltage is used to trigger
the TV system to begin sweeping across a raster line.
 Another voltage pulse is used to trigger the system to
start rescanning the television field.
Schematic structure of a charged
couple device (CCD)
TV camera and video signal (VII)
 A series of electronic circuits move the
scanning beams of the TV camera and
monitor in synchronism. This is achieved by
the synchronizing voltage pulses. The current,
which flows down the scanning beam in the TV
monitor, is related to that in the TV camera.
 Consequently, the brightness of the image on
the TV monitor is proportional to the amount of
light falling on the corresponding position on
the TV camera.
TV image sampling

HIGHT 512
IMAGE
512 x 512
PIXELS

WIDTH 512
ONE LINE

VIDEO
SIGNAL
(1 LINE)

64 µs
IMAGE LINE 52 µs SYNCHRO
DIGITIZED SIGNAL 12 µs
LIGHT SAMPLING
INTENSITY

SINGLE LINE TIME


Digital radiography principle

ANALOGUE
SIGNAL

I
ADC Memory t

DIGITAL
Iris SIGNAL

Clock

t
TV camera and video signal (VIII)

 It is possible to adjust the brightness


and contrast settings of the TV monitor
to improve the quality of the displayed
image.
 This can be performed using a suitable
test object or electronic pattern
generator.
Summary
 The main components of the
fluoroscopy imaging chain and their role
are explained:
 Image Intensifier
 Associated image TV system

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Where to Get More
Information
 Physics of diagnostic radiology, Curry et
al, Lea & Febiger, 1990
 Imaging systems in medical
diagnostics, Krestel ed., Siemens, 1990
 The physics of diagnostic imaging,
Dowsett et al, Chapman&Hall, 1998

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