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USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT

TO AVOID POLUTIN
_NISHA GUPTA_
INTRODUCTION

• Public transport offers alternative modes of transport to the private motor car. Public transport,
including trains, trams and buses, can relieve traffic congestion and reduce air pollution from road
transport. The use of public transport must be encouraged if a sustainable transport policy is to be
developed.

• Railways are efficient forms of transport that use existing tracks, and therefore use less land than roads.
One commuter train may hold hundreds of passengers which may otherwise have travelled to work by
car. Although trains can reduce road congestion, it is important to remember that they still contribute to
air pollution both directly and indirectly. Diesel engines produce a large amount of particulates. Electric
trains do not release air pollutants directly, but their electricity produced "upstream" by power stations
can contribute to acid rain and global warming if they use fossil fuels.
WHAT IS THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM?
• Public transportation systems include a variety of transit
options such as buses, light rail, and subways. These
systems are available to the general public, may require a
fare, and run at scheduled times. The purpose of
introducing or expanding public transportation is to
increase access to and use of public transit while, at the
same time, reducing motor vehicle miles driven and
traffic congestion.[1]

• Public transportation systems are often implemented at


the local or regional level and can be supported by federal
initiatives, such as the Fixing America’s Surface
Transportation (FAST) Act. [1, 2] Los Angeles County is one
example of a region that expanded its public
transportation system using local, state, and federal
funding.[3, 4]
WHAT IS THE PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE?

• Transportation systems help ensure that people can reach everyday destinations, such as jobs, schools,
healthy food outlets and healthcare facilities, safely and reliably.[5] Public transportation services play
an important role for people who are unable to drive, including those without access to personal
vehicles, children, individuals with disabilities, and older adults.[5,6] The U.S. transportation
infrastructure focuses on motor vehicle travel (e.g., passenger cars, vans, SUVs, pickup trucks, and other
light trucks) and provides limited support for other transportation options.[ 7] According to the U.S.
Census Bureau, in 2013 approximately 86 percent of all workers traveled to work by private vehicle, and
76 percent drove alone.[8] Also in 2013, 69 percent of urban households and 14 percent of rural
households had access to public transit.[4] Although using public transportation has historically been
safer than travel in passenger vehicles, passenger vehicle travel has grown more quickly than other
modes of travel.[1,7,9] Motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of injury-related death
for many age groups.[7,10] In 2013, motor vehicle crashes were the second leading cause of death
among individuals aged 13 to 25 years.[11]
PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass


transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by
the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established
routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.[1][2][3] Examples of public
transport include city buses, trolleybuses, trams (or light rail) and passenger
trains, rapid transit (metro/subway/underground, etc.) and ferries. Public
transport between cities is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail.
High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world.

• Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set
embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most
frequent services running to a headway (e.g.: "every 15 minutes" as opposed to
being scheduled for any specific time of the day). However, most public
transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or
catching bus services to access train stations.[4] Share taxis offer on-demand
services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public
transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges.
Paratransit is sometimes used in areas of low demand and for people who need
a door-to-door service.[5]
IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT

• The transport demand in most major cities around the world can only be met with a high-quality public
transport system. The requirements on bus, rail, underground and tram systems are manifold with
reliability and efficiency as the key factors. The service operating hours and the size of the network are
often extended in order to serve the needs better. Further, most metropolitan areas are trying to
provide more incentives for citizens to leave the car at home and use the local transit systems instead.
The reasons are well known. Not only does a public transport system only make economical sense if it is
well used, but most urban areas with a high car-dependency face at least three major problems; safety,
congestion, and pollution (noise and air pollution, land separation, etc.). It is generally recognised that
to decrease car usage and to increase public transport usage a stick & carrot approach is needed. The
London congestion-charging scheme is an example since all revenues collected by the scheme are put
into the improvement of bus and underground services
METHODOLOGY

• The quality of pedestrian routes of access to a public transport system (PTS) is an important aspect for
the choice of transport mode, which can be evaluated using some indicators such as accessibility,
comfort, frequency, etc. The policies for urban sustainable mobility must reflect the design and
management of mass transit systems, but also the judgment of users in terms of quality and perception
of PTS. The purpose is to reassess slow mobility encouraging the intermodal mobility between
pedestrian and public transport. Walking can be considered as an alternative mode of urban transport
and a moment of a break from the chaos of modern life. Its role should be considered as an important
element for a new model of structuring the city.
OBSERVATION

• "Public transport has a wide range of uses,


Nowadays the primary cause of pollution is cars
and traffic on the road.

• These take out harmful gases such as carbon


monoxide and sulfur oxides.

• Using public transport may be inconvenient, but it


will reduce pollution to a large extent as fewer
vehicles will ply the road and greener technologies
can be used.Read more on Brainly.in -
https://brainly.in/question/6000266#readmore
EXPLANATIONS
• Using public transport was a medium of transportation is one of the best ways of reducing air pollution and
wastage of energy and resources on an individual level.

• This is so because, instead of carbon emission and smoke by 10 cars we look at only 1 car. This will help to
drop the average rate of pollution.

• For example: Use of cycles in China is too a great way of reducing pollution and for long journeys people may
use buses or vans, etc.

• This is a great strategy.

• Thanks for asking. Read more on Brainly.in - https://brainly.in/question/6097731#readmore


EXPLANATIONS

the number of buses held by the publicly owned and operated bus transit providers increased fairly
steadily in the four secondary cities over the 1990s. On the other hand, the number of buses held in the
four metropolitan centres remained flat, and in fact dropped between 1990–91 and 1995–96. Of particular
note is the steady reduction in buses held by Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), the publicly owned
operator in the Indian capital (and the most motorized Indian city). Indeed, Delhi’s public bus fleet was
fully 33% lower in 2000–01 compared to 10 years earlier. However, it should be pointed out that there
were in fact considerably more buses held by private operators (but under DTC management) in 2000–
01.When these are included, Delhi in fact had the largest fleet (of 6028 buses) of any Indian city in this
year, and 37% more buses than it did in 1990–91. Further, Delhi has had a large number of buses owned
and operated by private operators (Table 1)
In our concluding section, we summarize and explore the lessons
from the results of our analysis of urban bus transit operations
between 1990–91 and 2000–01, and discuss how we might
address the challenge of pro-viding viable and affordable bus
transit service in Indian cities .The urban bus transit operations
studied suffered persistent losses before taxes over the 1990s,
except for Thane and Kolhapur. Inflation-adjusted losses on a per
passenger kilometre basis declined in the metropolitan centres,
despite a 17% decline in passenger kilometres. Meanwhile, these
losses more than doubled in the sec-on dary cities, despite
increased passenger kilometres. In the metropolitan centres,
operating costs per passenger kilometre increased in real terms,
but less rapidly than traffic revenues. Both operating costs and
traffi crevenues per passenger-kilometre were consistently
higher in the secondary cities than in the metropolitan centres.
While traffic revenues increased at the same rate as in the
metropolitan centres , operating costs per pas-senger kilometre
increased more rapidly in the secondary cities after 1995–96
USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT
CONCLUSION

• This note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction, and air
pollution in the Dakar agglomeration, carried out from August to November 1998, whose findings were
discussed at a national seminar, which formed part of the Sub-Saharan African air quality initiative.
Regarding the particular problem of air pollution caused by urban transport, the study and the
recommendations, defined an action plan, being considered for financing, as part of a project
preparation for increasing urban mobility in the Dakar area. The strategy for combating air pollution
caused by transport, features three main categories: 1) measures applicable to vehicles themselves,
namely to reduce individual emissions, by introducing tax, and regulatory measures governing vehicle
imports; by providing technical monitoring centers with equipment for measuring engine emissions;
and, by improving fuel quality; 2) operational measures for increasing pollution control efficiency of
public transport, by reorganizing mass transit, and, by enforcing actions to ease the flow of vehicular
traffic through transport planning; and, 3) measures for reducing demand, namely related to issues of
urban planning, such as administrative, or educational decentralization.
• For centuries, transport become the necessity for human beings to commute from one place to
another. As an example, from simply walking followed by using animals as their transportation to the
moment when vehicles were created clearly shows that transportation has massively evolved. Although
both Brunei and Singapore have the same medium of transportation, still a huge difference can be
spotted between them both. According to The Brunei Times (2013) “Citing statistics, the Ministry of
Communications Deputy Permanent Secretary said that an estimated 15,000 vehicles are registered in
the Sultanate every year.” Thus, the transportation between Brunei and Singapore can be described in
three ways which are the similarities and differences of public transportation of both countries are
using and the evaluation that can be obtained from both countries.
THANK YOU
_BY NISHA GUPTA_