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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry…
Introduction of oxidation & oxidation of
alkanes…
presented to : Dr.shazia saghir

Presented by : kiran akbar & nimra aman


(337) (338)
BS(hons) chemistry ( 6th semester)…

QUEEN MAR
Oxidation..
oxidation is a process in which :
 addition of oxygen
 removal of hydrogen
 loss of electron

OXIDATION STATE..

The number assaign to element in chemical combination


which represent the number of electron lost is called
oxidation number or rate.
e.g : Cu + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + NO2
Cu (0) Cu+2 (II)
Oxidation state…
Oxidizing agents.. 4

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent is a substance that has the


ability to oxidize other substances (cause them to lose
electrons).
common oxidizing agents …
ChromiC aCid…
is a very strong oxidizing agent .it is higly
reactive and higly unstable.it help in oxidation of alcohol
into aldehyde.
alcohol ( oxidation) H2CrO4 aldehyde
Dess martin reagent..
 It is conversion of aromatic alcohol into aliphatic or
aromatic aldehyde…
PCC reagent….
its stands for pyridine chloro chromate.this reagent is use
in long hydrocarbons oxidation.it is oxidation of alcohol and
alkene.
PdC reagent….
its stand for pyridine dichromate.it is use for oxidation of
alcohol and alkene as same pcc reagent.
dmSo reagent…
its stand for dimethyl sulfoxide.it is also known as swern
oxidation.it is use for oxidation of secondary alcohol and convert
into ketones.
It is also use in cope reaction for production of alkenes.
It is also used in oxidation of alkynes to dicarbonyl derivatives.
dCC reagent…
Its stand for dicyclohexyl carbodrimide.it is use in oxidation
of imines and imides.
Kmno4 reagent…
It is use to oxidize alcohol without breaking carbon-carbon
bond into acids.
oSo4 ,ruo4 ,Seo2 reagentS…
OsO4 ,RuO4 these oxides are use in oxidation of
alkene.as a result of diols are formed.
PeroxideS reagentS…
e.G : hydrogen peroxide is use as peroxides reagent.it
is use in oxidation of alkenes into peroxides.
metal and metal oxideS…
some metals such as Cu,Hg,Pb ,Pt,Ag etc and their
oxides work as oxidizing agents.these reagents use in
oxidation of aldehyde and ketones into carboxylic acids.
Oxidation of alkanes…
(a) Complete Oxidation or combustion :

CnH2n+2 + (3n+1/2) O2 ———→ nCO2 + (n + 1) H2O + Q

• This is exothermic reaction.

(b) Incomplete combustion or oxidation

Burn
2CH4 + 3O2 ———→ 2CO + 4H2O

CH4 + O2 ———→ C + 2H2O


(c) Catalytic Oxidation:
CH4 + [O] Cu – tube CH3OH
100 atm/200oC
This is the industrial method for the manufacture of methyl alcohol.

• Higher alkanes are oxidised to fatty acids in presence of manganese


stearate.

CH3(CH2)nCH3 O2 CH3(CH2)nCOOH
100 – 160oC

(d) Chemical oxidation:

KMnO4
(CH3)3CH ————→ (CH3)3.C.OH