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• The presence in or introduction into the

environment of a substance or thing that has

harmful or poisonous effects.
• It is the intoduction of contaminants into the
natural environment that cause adverse
• It occurs when harmful or excessive
quantities of substances including gases,
particulates, and biogical molecules (Nucleic
acids) are intoduced into Earth’s atmosphere.
• It refers to the contamination of the air,
irrespective of indoors or outside.
• Burning of fossils fuel-Sulfur dioxide emitted from the
combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and other factory
combustibles is one the major cause of air pollution.

• Agricultural activities-Ammonia is a very common by

product from agriculture related activities and is one of the most
hazardous gases in the atmosphere. Use of insecticides, pesticides
and fertilizers in agricultural activities has grown quite a lot. They
emit harmful chemicals into the air and can also cause water
• Exhaust from factories and industries-
Manufacturing industries release large amount of carbon monoxide,
hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air
thereby depleting the quality of air. Manufacturing industries can be
found at every corner of the earth and there is no area that has not
been affected by it. Petroleum refineries also release hydrocarbons
and various other chemicals that pollute the air and also cause land
• Mining operations- Mining is a process wherein minerals
below the earth are extracted using large equipments. During the
process dust and chemicals are released in the air causing massive
air pollution. This is one of the reason which is responsible for the
deteriorating health conditions of workers and nearby residents.
 Indoor air pollution- Household cleaning products,
painting supplies emit toxic chemicals in the air and cause air
pollution. Have you ever noticed that once you paint walls of your
house, it creates some sort of smell which makes it literally
impossible for you to breathe.
• Respiratory and heart problems- The effects of Air
pollution are alarming. They are known to create several
respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other
threats to the body. Several millions are known to have died due
to direct or indirect effects of Air pollution.
• Global Warming-Another direct effect is the immediate
alterations that the world is witnessing due to Global warming.
With increased temperatures world wide, increase in sea levels
and melting of ice from colder regions and icebergs.
• Acid rain- Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides
are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels.
When it rains, the water droplets combines with these air pollutants,
becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain.
Acid rain can cause great damage to human, animals and crops.
• Eutrophication- A condition where high amount of nitrogen
present in some pollutants gets developed on sea’s surface and
turns itself into algae and and adversely affect fish, plants and
animal species. The green colored algae that is present on lakes and
ponds is due to presence of this chemical only.
• Effect on Wildlife-Just like humans, animals also face some
devastating affects of air pollution. Toxic chemicals present in the
air can force wildlife species to move to new place and change their
habitat. The toxic pollutants deposit over the surface of the water
and can also affect sea animals.
• Depletion of Ozone layer-Ozone exists in earth’s
stratosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from
harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due
to the presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydro
chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere. As ozone layer will go
thin, it will emit harmful rays back on earth and can cause skin
and eye related problems. UV rays also have the capability to
affect crops
• Use public mode of transportation

• Conserve energy

• Understand the concept of reduce, reuse,


• Emphasis on clean energy resources

• Use energy efficient devices

• The contamination of water bodies, usually as
a result of human activities.
• Water pollution happens when toxic
substances enter water bodies.
• Industrial Waste • Global warming
• Sewage and waste • Urban Development
water • Leakage from the
• Mining activities landfills
• Marine Dumping • Animal waste
• Accidental Oil leakage • Underground storage
(Oil spill) leakage
• Burning of fossil fuels
• Chemical fertilizers and
• Leakage from sewer
• Typhoid • Jaundice
• Cholera • Amoebiasis
• Paratyphoid Fever • Malaria
• Dysentery
• Try to avoid using too many plastics
• Plastic waste should not throw in water
• Reuse things when possible
• Try to opt for recyclable and reusable options
• Sinks should not be used for discarding facts
and oils
• Household cleaning chemicals, too, are
potent polluters of water system
• Medicines should always be disposed of
safely in special facilities
• Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of
land degradation is cause by the presence of
xenobiotic chemicals or other alteration in
the natural soil environment.
• The deposition of solid and liquid waste
materials on land or undergound in a manner
that can contaminate the soil and
• Industrial activity • Environmental impact
• Agricultural activities • Effect on Human
• Waste disposal health
• Accidental oil spills • Cause air pollution
• Acid rain • Distraction for tourist
• Soil Pollution • Effect on wildlife
• Change in climate
• Make people aware about the concept of
reuse, reduce, recycle
• Reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers
• Avois buying packages items as they will lead
to garbage and end up in landfill site
• Do proper disposal of garbage
• Buy Bio-degradable products
• Do organic gardening
• Create dumping ground away from residential
• It is also known as environmental noise or
noise pollution, is the propagation of noise
with harmful impact on the activity of human
or animal life.
• Defined as regular exposure to elevated
sound levels that may lead to adverse effects.
• Industrialization-Most of the industries use big machines
which are capable of producing large amount of noise.
• Poor Urban Planning-In most of the developing
countries, poor urban planning also play a vital role. Congested
houses, large families sharing small space, fight over parking,
frequent fights over basic amenities leads to noise pollution
which may disrupt the environment of society.
 Social Events-Noise is at its peak in most of the social
events. Whether it is marriage, parties, pub, disc or place of worship,
people normally flout rules set by the local administration and create
nuisance in the area. People play songs on full volume and dance till
midnight which makes the condition of people living nearby pretty
worse. In markets, you can see people selling clothes via making
loud noise to attract the attention of people.
• Transportation-Large number of vehicles on roads,
aeroplanes flying over houses, underground trains produce heavy
noise and people get it difficult to get accustomed to that. The high
noise leads to a situation wherein a normal person lose the ability to
hear properly.
• Construction Activities-Under construction activities
like mining, construction of bridges, dams, buildings, stations,
roads, flyovers take place in almost every part of the world.
These construction activities take place everyday as we need
more buildings, bridges to accommodate more people and to
reduce traffic congestion. The down point is that these
construction equipments are too noisy.
 Household chores- We people are surrounded by gadgets
and use them extensively in our daily life. Gadgets like TV, mobile ,
mixer grinder, pressure cooker, vacuum cleaners , washing machine
and dryer, cooler, air conditioners are minor contributors to the
amount of noise that is produced but it affects the quality of life of
your neighborhood in a bad way.
• Hearing problem
• Health Issues
• Sleeping Disorder
• Cardiovascular Issues
• Trouble communicating
• Effect on wildlife
1. It is the intoduction of contaminants into
the natural environment that cause adverse
 It refers to the contamination of the air,
irrespective of indoors or outside.
 Water pollution happens when toxic
substances enter water bodies.
 The deposition of solid and liquid waste
materials on land or undergound in a manner
that can contaminate the soil and
underground water.
 Defined as regular exposure to elevated
sound levels that may lead to adverse
 Pollution
 Air Pollution
 Water Pollution
 Land Pollution
 Noise Polution