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Geetanjali kumari
8th semester
Ranchi veterinary collage
Lipid profile or lipid panal is a panal of blood
tests that serves as an initial screening tool
for abnormalities in lipids,such as cholesterol
and triglyceride.
Lipid panal test can determine approximate
risks for cardiovascular disease,certain forms
of pancreatitis,and other diseases.
The lipid profile typically includes:
 Low density lipoprotein{LDL}
 High density lipoprotein{HDL}
 Triglycerides
 Total cholesterol
 Very low density lipoprotien{VLDL}
 Cholesterol:HDL ratio
o Lipid disorders are problems with the various
forms of fat that are carried in the
bloodstream.They include low density
lipoproteins(LDL),high density lipoproteins and
triglycerides.
o Lipids donot dissolve in water.For cholesterol
and fatty acids to be carried in the blood and
used in cells, the body use a kind of protein
called apoproteins to transport the lipids through
the blood and into the cells.These protein bound
fats are called lipoproteins.
o Each lipoprotein contains cholesterol,cholesterol
esters,triglycerides,phospholipids,vitamines and
apoproteins.
 High density lipoprotein:
HDL is the smallest of the lipoprotein particles.It is the
densest because it contains the highest proportion of
proteins to lipids.
HDL transports cholesterol mostly to the liver or
steroidogenic organs such as adrenals,ovary and
testes by both direct and indirect pathways.
HDL removed by HDL receptors such as scavenger
receptor BI, which mediate the selective uptake of
cholesterol from HDL.
 Low density lipoprotein:
Low density lipoproteins transports cholesterol from
the liver to the tissues of the body.It is called bad
cholesterol because it takes cholesterol to arteries.
MAJOR LIPOPROTIENS MINOR LIPOPROTEINS

 CHYLOMICRONS  INTERMEDIATE
 VERY LOW DENSITY DENSITY
LIPOPROTEINS(V.L.D.L LIPOPROTEINS
)  LIPOPROTEIN (a)
 LOW DENSITY  LIPOPROTEIN(x)
LIPOPROTEINS(L.D.L)  Beta –V.L.D.L
 HIGH DENSITY
LIPOPROTEINS(H.D.L)
 Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids
to form lipoproteins .They transport lipids in
blood,cerebrospinal fluid and lymph.
 FUNCTION
 They are cofactors various enzymes
 Ligands for interaction with lipoprotein
receptors in tissues
 Act as ligand for cell surface receptor
 There are multiple classes for
apolipoproteins and several sub classes:
 Apoliprotein A(APOAI,APOA2,APOA4,APO5)
 Apolipoprotein B(apoB48, apoB100)
 Apolipoprotein C (apo c1,apo c2,apo
c3,apoc4)
 Apolipoprptein D
 Apolipoprotein E
 Apolipoprotein H
 Apolipoprotein L
o Monitoring and maintaining healthy lipid
levels in the blood is crucial to stay healthy.
o It is a good indicator of any cardiovascular
related disease.
o A lipid profile helps the doctor in formulating
a treatment plan.
o Screening for primary and secondary
hyperlipidemias
LDL-cholesterol Decreased in:
o Severe illness
o Certain drugs
o A beta lipoproteinemia
LDL-cholesterol increased in:
o Familiar hypercholesterolemia
o Familiar combined hyperlipidemia
o Diabetes mellitus
o Nephrosis
o Chronic renal failure
Triglyceride increased in:
o Familiar hypertriglyceridemia
o Von gierke disease
o Diabetes mellitus
o Hypothyroidism
o Nephrosis
o Chronic renal failure
o Drugs
o Serum cholesterol decreased in:
o Severe liver damage
o Hyperthyroidism
o Malnutrition
o Chronic anemia
o Infection
o Drugs
Serum cholesterol increased in:
o Primary hyperlipoproteinemia
o Secondary hyperlipoproteinemia
o Diabetes mellitus
o Hypothyroidism
o Hemodialysis
o Obstructive liver disease
o Chronic alcoholism
HDL Cholesterol decreased in:
o Stress
o Acute myocardial infarction
o Stroke
o Surgery
o Starvation
o Diabetes mellitus
o Liver disease
o Nephrosis
HDL Cholesterol increased in:
o Moderate consumption of alcohol,insulin.
o Hyper alpha lipoprpteinemia
o Hypo beta lipoproteinemia
Factors that affect lipid profile of blood:
 Posture
 Fasting
 Biological variations(Age,sex,season,food intake)
 Life style factor
 Exercise
 Menstrual cycle
 Alcohal ingestion
 Smoking
 Anticoagulants
 TG,HDL cholesterol,TC can be analysed in
frozen samples
 Apolipoproteins can also be measured in
frozen sample
 Serum/plasma must be stored at -70 deg if
stored for long time
 For short storage the sample can be kept at -
20 deg.
1. TOTAL LIPID
2. SERUM TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
3. SERUM HDL-C
4. TC/HDL-C
5. SERUM TRIGLYCERIDE
6. SERUM PHOSPHOLIPID
7. ELECTROPHORESIS
1. Modified ABELL KENDALL METHOD
2. PRINCIPLE:
3. Cholesterol esters hydrolysed with alcoholic KOH
4. Unesterified cholesterols are extacted with
petroleum ether.
5. Then they are measured with LIEBERMANN
BURCHARD REAGENT.
6. BURCHARD REAGENT is:
Cholesterol + Sulphuric acid +Acetic anhydride =bluish
green solution.
 Cholesteryl esters +h20...........cholesterol+
free fatty acids
 Cholesterol +02...............cholesten-4en-
3one +h2o2
 H202 +phenol+4-
aminoantipyrine.......quinoenimine +2h20
 The absorbance of quinoenimine produced is
measured at 500nm.
 Red complex form
 PRINCIPLE
 Serum TG are hydrolysed to glycerol and free
fatty acids by lipase
 In presense of ATP and glycerokinase,
glycerol is converted to glycerol phosphate
which is then oxidise to yield h202
 H202 react with ESPAS to form colored
complex, the intensity of which is measured
at 546nm.
*ESPAS:N ethyl N sulfopropyl m anizidine
 HOMOGENOUS ASSAY
 PRINCIPLE
 The method depend on the properties of
detergent which solublizes only the HDL so
that HDL-C is released to react with the
cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidised
and chromogen to give color.
 The intensity of color is formed proportional
to concentration of HDL in sample, the
absorbance of which is measured at 600 nm.
 FRIDEWALD CALCULATION

 LDL-C(mg/dl) = (TC- HDL CHOLESTEROL)-


PLASMA TG/5
LIPID LEVEL(mg/dl)

1. TOTAL LIPID 400-800


2. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL 150-250
3. TRIGLYCERIDES 10-90
4. PHOSPHOLIPIDS 150-380
5. FREE FATTY ACIDS 9.0-15.0
6. PHOSPHOLIPID 8.0-11.0
7. LDL cholesterol <150
8. HDL cholesterol <60
 Ultracentrifugal methods
 Electrophoretic method
 Polyionic precipitation method
 USE: identify rare familier disorders (eg type
I, II, III, V Hyperlipidemia)
 PRINCIPLE
 The specimen is applied to a cellulose
acetate plate which has been presoaked in a
tris barbital buffer at ph 8.8.The lipoprotein
fractions are separated by electrophoresis
and then stained with a methanol solution of
Fat red 7B at an alkaline pH.The stained
bands may be visually inspected for
qualitative results or may be quantitated in a
scanning densiometer using a 525nm filter.
Elecrophoretic fraction Finding on ultracentrifugation

Nomigrating band Chylomicrons


Beta band LDL
Broad beta band IDL
Pre beta band VLDL
Alpha band HDL
 The alpha lipoprotein (HDL) is the fastest
moving fraction and is located closest to the
anode.
 The beta lipoprotein(LDL) band is present at
the origin
 The pre beta lipoprptein(VLDL) band
migrates between alpha and beta
lipoprotein.
 Acute myocardial infarction
 Stroke
 Diabetes mellitus
 Gall stones
 Pancreatitis
 REFERENCE:
 http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/lipid profile
 Slideshare.net
 http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apolipoprot
ein
 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
 http.//www.cdc.gov(pdf)
 Tietz’s fundamental of clinical chemistry 6/e