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# Shear and Diagonal Tension

## Types of Shear Failure

Diagonal Tension Failure Shear-Compression Failure
-usually occur when the shear span is greater than 3d or 4d. -occurs when the shear span is from d to 2.5d.
Splitting or True Shear Failure
-occurs when the shear span is less than the effective depth d.
Basic code requirements

factored shear force 𝑉𝑢 shall be equal or less than the design shear ∅𝑉𝑛

## 𝑽𝒖 ≤ ∅𝑽𝒏 Eq. 4-1

where ∅ = 0.85

𝑽𝒖 = 𝑽𝒄 + 𝑽𝒔 Eq. 4-2
Shear Strength Provided By Concrete, 𝑉𝑐 For
Nonprestressing Members
For members subject to shear and flexure only At sections where factored torsional moment 𝑇𝑢
exceeds

## For members subject to axial compression

For members subject to shear and flexure only, For members subject to significant axial tension

## where N, is negative for tension. Quantity

N,j A8 shall be expressed in MPa. In

## However, Vc shall not be taken greater than

Shear Strength Provided By Reinforcement
When factored shear force V, exceeds strength q, Vc, shear reinforcement shall be provided to
satisfy Eq. 4-1 and Eq. 4-2. The shear strength provided by the stirrups is given by the following but
2
shall not be taken greater than 3 𝑓′𝑐𝑏𝑤

## where Av is the area of shear reinforcement within a distance s.

Av = 2 Ab for a U stirrup
(b) When inclined stirrups are used as shear reinforcement

axis of member.

## (c) When shear reinforcement consist of a single bar or a single

group of parallel bars, all bent up at the same distance from the
support
TYPES OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT
According to Section 5.11.5.1 of the Code, shear reinforcement may consist of:
a) stirrups perpendicular to axis of member, and
b) b) welded wire fabric with wires located perpendicular to axis of member.

## For nonprestressed members, shear reinforcement may also consist of:

a) stirrups inaking an angle of 45° or more with longitudinal tension reinforcement,
b) longitudinal reinforcement with bent portion making an angle of 30° or more with
the longitudinal tension reinforcement,
c) combinations of stirrups and bentlongitudinal reinforcement, and
d) spirals.
Design Yield Strength Of Stirrups
According the Section 5.11.5.2. the design yield strength of
shear reinforcement shall not exceed 415 MPa. Stirrups and
other bars or wires used as shear reinforcement shall extend
to a distance d from extreme compression fiber and shall be
anchored at both ends to develop the design yield strength
of reinforcement.
Spacing Limits Of Shear Reinforcement, s
According to Section 5.11.5.4 of the Code, the spacings of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular
to axis of members shall not exceed d/2 in nonprestressed members and (3/4)h in prestressed
members, nor 600 mm. Inclined stirrups and bent longitudinal reinforcement shall be so spaced that
every 45° line, extending toward the reaction from middepth of member d/2 longitudinal tension
reinforcement, shall be crossed by at least one line of shear reinforcement.

1
When V, exceed3 𝑓′𝑐𝑏𝑤 𝑑maximum spacing given by the above limits shall be reduced by one-half.
Minimum Shear Reinforcement
According to Section 5.11.5.5 of the Code, a minimum area of
shear reinforcement shall be provided in all reinforced concrete
flexural members (prestressed and nonprestressed) where factored
shear force 𝑉𝑢 exceeds one-half the shear strength provided by
concrete ∅𝑉𝑐 except:
(a) Slabs and footings
(b) Concrete joist construction defined by Sec. 5.8.11
(c) Beams with total depth not greater than 250 mm,
2-1/2 times thickness of flange, or 1/2 the width of web,
whichever is greatest.
Critical Section For Beam Shear

According to section 5.11.1.3 of NSCP, the maximum factored shear force V,. at supports
may be computed in accordance with the following conditions provided that:
(a) the support reaction, in direction of the applied shear, introduces
compression into the end regions of member, and
(b) no concentrated load occurs between the face of the support and the
location of the critical section.
1. For non-prestessed members, sections located less than a distance d from face of support may be
designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance d.
2. For prestressed member, sections located less than a distance h/2 from face of support may be designed for
the same shear V, as that computed at a distance h/2.
STEP BY STEP
PROCEDURE
1. Calculate the factored shear Can either be in the critical section
force Vu Or within any point in the beam

## Use the appropriate formula for Vc.

2. Calculate the shear strength Typical formula is
provided by the concrete (Vc).
Vc = 0.17λ(√f’c)bwd

## If Vu > ΦVc, stirrups are necessary, proceed to Step 5. Avmin = 0.062(√f’c)bwS/fyt

3. Check whether stirrups are
necessary or not. If Vu < ΦVc but Vu > Φ(0.5Vc), use minimum area of stirrups > 0.35bwS/fyt
If Vu > ΦVc, beam section is capable to carry the factored shear

## 4. Calculate the shear strength

Vn = Vs + Vc
provided by the stirrups. If Vs < 0.66√f’c ,proceed to Step 5
Otherwise, adjust the size of the beam

## 5. Determine the required spacing S = Avfytd/Vs

of the stirrups. Check with the required maximum spacing
If Vs < 0.66√f’c , Smax = d/2 or 600 mm (get smaller)
If Vs > 0.66√f’c , Smax = d/4 or 300 mm (get smaller)
6. Draw the shear reinforcement
details for the beam
Sample Beam Reinforcement Details
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Problem. A rectangular beam has the following properties
b = 320 mm Stirrup diameter = 10 mm
d = 570 mm fyt = 275 MPa
f'c = 24 MPa

## Determine the following:

a. Required spacing of stirrups when the required shear strength is 90 kN.
b. Required spacing of stirrups when the required shear strength is 130 kN.