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- General Physics 1 Mechanics Hazeem Sake Ek
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LAWS OF

MOTION

Objectives:

■ Draw free-body diagrams.

■ Define inertial frame of reference.

■ Apply Newton’s first law of motion to obtain quantitative

and qualitative conclusions about contact and

noncontact forces acting on a body in equilibrium.

■ Plan and execute an experiment involving forces.

■ Distinguish mass from weight.

Objectives:

■ Compare the magnitude of sought quantities such as force and

acceleration.

■ Apply Newton’s second law of motion and kinematics to obtain

quantitative and qualitative conclusions about the velocity and

acceleration of one or more bodies.

■ Analyze the effect of fluid resistance on a moving object.

■ Solve problems using Newton’s laws of motion.

■ Identify action-reaction pairs.

■ What determines who wins in a tug of war?

■ Why do passengers on a bus tend to move forward when

the bus suddenly stops?

■ What keeps the sun, Earth, and move continuously in

their paths?

DYNAMICS

Dynamics is

the study of

the causes of

motion.

FORCES

■ In layman’s term, a force is a simple push or

pull.

■ When two bodies interact, there is force.

FORCES

CLASSIFICATION OF FORCES

■ Contact Force

■ Noncontact Force

CONTACT FORCE

Contact force occurs when the

bodies interacting are touching

each other.

NONCONTACT ■ Noncontact

forces are

FORCE

long-range

forces that

can act even

if the bodies

are separated

by empty

space.

COMMON

TYPES OF ■ NORMAL FORCE (n)

FORCES THAT ■ FRICTION (f)

ACT ON A

■ TENSION (T)

MECHANICAL

■ WEIGHT (w)

SYSTEM

NORMAL FORCE

- IS EXERTED ON AN

OBJECT BY A SURFACE

WHICH IS IN CONTACT

WITH.

- THE WORD “NORMAL”

MEANS THAT ITS

DIRECTION IS ALWAYS

PERPENDICULAR TO THE

SURFACE.

FRICTION

- ACTS PARALLEL

TO THE SURFACE

OPPOSITE TO THE

DIRECTION OF

MOTION OF THE

BODY.

TENSION

EXERTED BY A

STRETCHED ROPE ON AN

OBJECT TO WHICH IT IS

ATTACHED.

WEIGHT

- IS THE DOWNWARD

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

EXERTED BY EARTH ON

AN OBJECT.

■ In analyzing mechanical system, you are

interested in finding the net force on a body

most of the time.

■ The NET FORCE is the vector sum of all the

forces that act on a body.

■ You can find the net force by first constructing

an idealized model of the system.

■ To do this, you draw a FREE-BODY DIAGRAM

that shows all the forces that act on a body.

■ To construct a free-body diagram, include only

the forces that act on the body, not the forces

exerted by the body on other bodies.

■ After making a free-body diagram, define the

coordinate system that shows the location of

the origin and the positive directions for the

axes.

■ The, designate the body as a particle located

at the origin, and draw vectors that represent

the forces that act on the body.

■ The net force may be computed using vector

addition.

Example 1

Draw the free-body diagram for each item. Then

find the net force on each body.

a. A cat with weight of 50 N falls toward the

ground.

b. An apple with a 1 N weight rests on a

table that exerts a normal force of 1 N.

c. A 100 N box is pulled by a rope with a

strength of 200 N at an angle of 30 degrees

across a surface with a 5 N frictional force. The

surface exerts an 80 N normal force.

Example 2

A horizontal force of 150 N is applied on a 20 kg

which causes it to move to the right.

a. What is the acceleration if there is no

friction?

b. What is the acceleration if the coefficient

of kinetic friction is 0.25?

c. Using the acceleration in letter b, what is

the final speed of the box after 8 seconds?

Example 3

A rope lifts up a 5 kg with a tension force of 80

N. What is the acceleration of the box?

Example 4

A 10 kg box rests on a 30 degrees incline and

begins to slide down.

a. What is the acceleration if no friction is

present?

b. What is the acceleration if the coefficient

of kinetic friction in 0.20?

c. What is the final speed of the box when

kit reaches the bottom of an incline that in 200

m? (use the answer in letter b?

Example 5

A force of 200 N is applied on a 10 kg box

across a frictionless surface.

a. What is the acceleration of the box?

b. If the box accelerates from rest, what will

its final speed be after 8 seconds?

c. How long will it take the box to reach a

speed of 500 m/s if it continues to accelerate at

this rate?

Example 6

A force of 300 N is applied across a 20 kg box. The

frictional force acting on the box is 200 N.

a. What is the net horizontal force of the box?

b. Calculate the acceleration of the box.

c. How far will the box travel after 12 seconds

if it continues to accelerate at this rate starting

from rest?

■ Imagine a rolling ball that eventually comes to

stop?

■ How do you think Aristotle explain this

phenomenon?

■ What about Galileo and Newton?

■ Who among them is the most convincing?

HISTORY OF THE LAWS OF MOTION

because it seeks its natural state of motion –

at rest.

■ Using his ideas of motion, he said that force is

required to keep an object moving.

■ Therefore, you must keep pushing the ball so

that it will continue moving.

HISTORY OF THE LAWS OF MOTION

stopped because of the presence of friction on

the surface of the table.

■ Without this friction, the ball will continuously

move and no force needed to keep it moving.

■ Based on experiments, this explanation is

correct and thus, Aristotle’s views on motion

were then discredited.

HISTORY OF THE LAWS OF MOTION

■ Galileo came to realize his views on motion by conducting

an experiment using inclined planes.

■ Rolling balls eventually come to a stop NOT because of their

“natural motion” as Aristotle believed, but because of

FRICTION.

■ Also, he observed that when the balls roll on a smoother

surface with less friction, the motion of the ball persisted

for a longer time.

■ Therefore, in the absence of friction or opposing forces, a

ball rolling horizontally would continue moving indefinitely.

HISTORY OF THE LAWS OF MOTION

■ In the absence of retarding forces such as friction,

Galileo realized that moving objects move continuously

in a straight line with constant velocity.

■ Likewise, an object at rest will remain at rest unless it

is moved by a net force.

■ This tendency of a body to maintain its state of being

at rest or moving uniformly in a straight line is called

INERTIA.

■ An object’s inertia is proportional to its mass.

HISTORY OF THE LAWS OF MOTION

■ Upon the foundations laid by Galileo, Isaac built his

great theories on motion at the age of 23.

■ In 1687, he published them in the historical Principia

Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis (Mathematical

Principles of Natural Philosophy).

■ His analysis of motion is summarized in the famous

“Three Laws of Motion”

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

■ It states that:

rest or moving with constant velocity in a straight line)

unless acted upon by a net force.”

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

bicycle?

■ Certainly, it’s the truck because it has a greater mass

than the bicycle.

■ Note that “the greater the mass of an object, the

greater its tendency to maintain its state of motion.

■ Mass is a measure of the inertia of an object.

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

the vehicle suddenly moves forward (from stationary)?

Why do passengers move forward when it suddenly

brakes and stops?

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

■ When a stationary bus suddenly starts to move, it

accelerates forward.

■ By the Law of Inertia, the passengers tend to retain their

state of being at rest.

■ But because they are seated on the bus, the friction on

their seats pull them forward, making them look like they

are moving backward.

■ Likewise, when a moving bus (and the passengers)

suddenly stops, its acceleration is directed backward.

■ The passengers tend to retain their state of being in motion

so they tend to move forward.

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

■ A body is in a STATE OF EQUILIBRIUM when it is at rest or

moving with a constant velocity.

■ Be Newton’s law of inertia, the net force that acts on it must

be zero.

■ That is, for a body to be in a state of equilibrium, the vector

sum of all the forces that act on it must be ZERO.

■ Thus, for a body to be in a state of equilibrium, the

summation of forces in each component must also be zero.

■ This is sometimes called the FIRST CONDITION FOR

EQUILIBRIUM.

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

Example 1:

An apple with weight of 1 N rests on a table. Find the

normal force that the table exerts on the apple.

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

Example 2:

A man pulls a 100 N box using a rope oriented at an

angle of 30 degrees with a horizontal force on the rough

floor that exerts 8 N frictional force on the box. Find:

a. the tension in the rope.

b. the normal force that the floor exerts on the box.

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

body is in the state of equilibrium. This means that the

body will continue its state of motion (whether at rest

or moving).

■ What about when the net force is NOT ZERO?

■ The net force will cause the body to accelerate. The

body either moves from rest or the velocity changes. A

net force causes acceleration.

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

■ If you push cart, it will accelerate in the direction of the

net force.

■ If you increase the net force on the cart, its

acceleration also increases.

■ This suggests that for a constant mass, the

acceleration of an object is proportional to the net

force that acts on it.

■ The symbol ∝ means “proportional to”.

acceleration ∝ net force

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

■ The acceleration of an object depends on its mass as

well.

■ If you push an empty cart with the same force as you

push the one filled with groceries, you will find that the

empty cart accelerates more.

■ Therefore, the greater the mass of the body, the lesser

its acceleration for a given net force.

■ So, for a constant net force, the acceleration of an

object is inversely proportional to its mass.

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

■ These relationships are summarized in the Newton’s

Second Law of Motion or the Law of Acceleration,

which states that:

the net force acting on it, is in the same direction as the

net force, and is inversely proportional to its mass.”

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

■ This can be expressed in an equation as:

Fnet = ma

Or

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

■ You can now apply Newton’s second law to an object of

mass that is falling due to gravity.

■ The force of gravity for this object is:

Fg = mg

MASS VS. WEIGHT

Example 1

The acceleration due to gravity on Earth is 9.8 m/s^2.

On the moon, the acceleration due to gravity is only one-

sixth of Earth’s. Compare the mass and weight of a 60-

kg person on Earth and on the moon.

MASS VS. WEIGHT

MASS – is the property of an object itself. It is the

measure of an object’s inertia or its “quantity of matter.”

object.

MASS VS. WEIGHT

Example 2

For an Atwood machine with a frictionless pulley and

masses m1 = 0.10 kg and m2 = 0.30 kg. Find the:

a. acceleration of the system.

b. tension along the string.

Assume that the string has negligible mass and cannot

be stretched.

MASS VS. WEIGHT

Example 3

Two blocks are connected by an ideal cord that does not

stretch; the cord passes over an ideal pulley. If the

masses are m1 = 42.0 kg and m2 = 26.0 kg, what are

the acceleration of the system and the tension in the

cord?

MASS VS. WEIGHT

Example 4

A student is moving into a dorm room on the third floor

and he decides to use a block and tackle arrangement to

move a crate of mass 91 kg from the ground up to his

window. If the breaking strength of the available rope is

550 N, what is the minimum time required to haul the

crate to the level of the window 30 m above the ground,

without breaking the rope?

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

Example 3

Suppose you are standing on a weighing scale in an

elevator. What is the reading on the scale when you are

(a) accelerating upward and (b) accelerating downward

at a rate of 2.0 m/s^2? Your mass is 50 kg.

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

Example 3

Apparent weight – the reading on the weighing scale,

which is also the normal force (n).

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

■ Interestingly, you seem to weigh more if the elevator is

accelerating upward and less if it is accelerating

downward.

■ The elevator accelerates upward when it is either:

(1) Moving upward with increasing speed.

(2) Moving downward with decreasing speed.

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

■ Likewise, the elevator accelerates downward when it is

either:

(1) Moving upward with decreasing speed.

(2) Moving downward with increasing speed.

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

■ When the elevator is stationary or moving at a

constant speed, then the acceleration is zero, so

apparent weight is equal to true weight.

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

■ Now, imagine that the elevator cable breaks and it

plunges to the ground. What is your apparent weight in

this scenario?

■ For this case, you are in a state of free fall, so your

acceleration is a = -g.

■ Substituting this to apparent weight gives n = 0.

■ You are therefore apparently WEIGHTLESS.

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

Example 4:

A passenger weighing 598 N rides in a elevator. What is the

apparent weight of the passenger in each of the following

situations? In each case, the magnitude of the elevator’s

acceleration in 0.500 m/s^2.

a. The passenger is on the first floor and has pushed

the button for the fifteenth floor, the elevator is beginning to

move upward.

b. The elevator is slowing down as it nears the fifteenth

floor.

APPARENT WEIGHT AND WEIGHTLESSNESS

Example 5:

What is the apparent weight of a passenger of mass 42.0

kg traveling in an elevator in each of the following

situations? In each case, the magnitude of the elevator’s

acceleration is 0.460 m/s^2.

a. The passenger is on the fifteenth floor and has

pushed the button for the first floor, the elevator is

beginning to move downward.

b. The elevator is slowing down as it nears the first

floor.

NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION

■ Forces always come in pairs.

■ When you push a wall, you can feel that the wall also

pushes you back.

■ When a rocket expels out gases backward, the gases

push the rocket forward, which eventually propels the

rocket forward.

NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION

■ This is the concept of Newton’s Third Law of Motion or

the Law of Interaction, which states that:

magnitude and opposite direction.”

NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION

■ The forces mentioned in the law are commonly

referred as “action-reaction” forces.

■ Action-reaction forces act on different bodies.

■ You should be cautious because these forces act on

different objects even though their magnitudes are the

same.

NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION

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