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DN

Do Now: Rewrite then answer the following.


No Aids Allowed!

• 1. Define Jet Propulsion.

• 2. What is a “reactive” engine?

• 3 Name ALL the sections of the gas turbine engine.

Due: 1st Stroke of 8:17


Mr. Colucci’s Advanced Jets Class
Lesson # 4
AIM: Engine Airflow & the Energy Within.
What do we measure, and what are the
factors that affect it?
Gas Turbine Engine.

Topic: Engine Airflow & Its Energy


At the End of Today’s Lesson
You Will Be Able To:
• Give types of Energy inside a GTE.
• Give the definitions of Diffuser & Nozzle & Duct.
• Give the Factors affecting airflow through a duct.
• Describe what happens to sub-sonic & super sonic
airflows into a convergent / divergent duct
• Definitions of energy, duct ,nozzle & diffuser

• Energy inside a GTE: what do we measure


Discuss with your Crew the following. Ammend / Supplement
your group work – guided notes as needed.
Prepare to Present!

• Factors affecting airglow energy inside a duct.


• Behavior of subsonic & supersonic airflow
energy inside a divergent / convergent duct
• ( reasons for that behavior)

• Definitions of energy, duct ,nozzle & diffuser


• Energy inside a GTE: what do we measure
Factors Affecting Airflow inside / through a duct is dependent on:

• Behavior of subsonic & supersonic


• airflow energy inside a divergent / convergent duct
• ( & reasons for that behavior)
What Is Energy?
Types Of Energy
Categories of Energy
Potential Kinetic
Pressure
magnetic
Elastic Gravitational Thermal

Electricity
Chemical Heat
Geo-thermal
Electrostatic Sound
solar
nuclear Electro-mechanic

Mechanical / stored mechanical Wind


light

magnetic Velocity
Tension
Crews 1, 2, 3 & 4

ENERGY Inside a Gas Turbine Engine. What do we measure?

What kind of energy do these midgets feel?


ENERGY Inside. What do we measure
Total Energy = Velocity Pressure
+
….Static Pressure….( reflects temperature )
= to TOTAL PRESSURE
DEFINITIONS
What’s a Duck A Passage way for a Fluid
What’s a DUCT
What is a Convergent Duct?

What is a Divergent Duct


What does Sub Sonic mean?
What Does supersonic mean?

How fast is the Speed of Sound?


What do we Want?
Velocity Energy or Pressure Energy
& Where do we want it?

Through the MAGIC of DUCTS, We can get What WE Want


Referencing a Gas Turbine Engine
What’s a DIFFUSER?

What’s a NOZZLE?
How many bicycles the old man counts passing in
front of him is dependent on?

What does Danny Bernoulli say about the energy


(pressure & velocity) of fluid flowing at a constant rate? Why?
What is this Guy Doing?
What is He counting?

Write your answers down

How many __________He counts is dependent on ?


What affects the Airflow’s velocity &
Pressure as it travels through a duct ?
• Shape of the Duct
• Speed of the air / Aircraft
(subsonic or supersonic Airflow)
• Danny Bernoulli’s Principle
What does Danny Bernoulli say about the energy
(pressure & velocity) of fluid flowing at a constant rate? Why?

• Mass Airflow Behavior.


MAF = density of airflow X velocity of airflow X c/s Area of duct
Airflow inside a duct is dependent on
A. Speed of Air
B. Shape of Duct
C. Bernoulli’s Prin.
D. MAF = Mass Airflow = Velelocity X Density X Area

Subsonic Airflow
Divergent Duct

Convergent Duct

VELOCITY INCREASES VELOCITY DECREASES


PRESSURE DECREASES PRESSURE INCREASES

What happens to the V & P of the SubsonicAirflow as it flows into each Duct above
Using A to D above, WHY does that happen ?
For Sub-Sonic Airflow
ACTS LIKE A NON-COMPRESSIBLE FLUID

SUBSONIC AIRFLOW
Airflow inside a duct is dependent on
A. Speed of Air
B. Shape of Duct
C. Bernoulli’s Prin.
D. MAF = Mass Airflow = Velelocity X Density X Area

Supersonic Airflow
Divergent Duct

Convergent Duct

VELOCITY DECREASES VELOCITY INCREASES


PRESSURE INCREASES PRESSURE DECREASES

What happens to the V & P of the SupersonicAirflow as it flows into each Duct above
Using A to D above, WHY does that happen ?
Airflow inside a duct is dependent on
A. Speed of Air
B. Shape of Duct
C. Bernoulli’s Prin.
D. MAF = Mass Airflow = Velelocity X Density X Area

VELOCITY INCREASES
VELOCITY DECREASES
PRESSURE DECREASES
PRESSURE INCREASES

What happens to the V & P of the Airflow as it flows into each Duct above
Using A to D above, WHY does that happen ?
Pressure Velocity

For Supersonic Airflow


VELOCITY INCREASING
PRESSURE DECREASING

SUPERSONIC
AIRFLOW

VELOCITY DECREASING
PRESSURE INCREASING
Review:

• Referencing Energy inside a GTE;


Give what is measured.
• Give Definitions of Diffuser & Nozzle
• Give the Factors affecting airflow through a
duct.
• Describe what happens to sub-sonic &
super sonic airflows into a convergent /
divergent duct
A
Mnemonic
Does Bernoulli’s Principle Apply
In the Compressor ? In the Turbine

In the Burner ?

PRESSURES, TEMPERATURES & VELOCITY inside a G.T.E


Do After:
Answer 3 out of the 4 following questions (in full sentences)

• Referencing Energy inside a GTE;


Give what is measured.
• Give the Definitions of Diffuser & Nozzle
• Give the Factors affecting airflow through a
duct.
• Describe what happens to sub-sonic &
super sonic airflows into a convergent /
divergent duct
THE END
Home Work

• Print out & read Lesson #5 handout on Inlet Section.


• Take Notes / Write HOT Questions
( note taking sheets (2) are on google drive)
• STRESS / Include notes on
• Inlet Functions & How it accomplishes them.
• ( Be prepared for quiz and / or to present to the class)
Bernoulli’s Principle
BERNOULLI’S ANIMATION