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Cell Organelles

Eukaryotic Cells
Cell Parts
• Cells – the basic unit
of life
• Organelles - small
structures inside a
cell with specific
functions.

Analogy – City of Rocklin


A) Cell Membrane/Plasma
Membrane

Cell
membrane

1. Function: Regulates materials entering and


exiting the cell.
2. Structure: Two layers of phospholipids, proteins

Analogy – Rocklin city limits


B) Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm

1. Function: All cell contents that lie between the cell


membrane and the nucleus. (organelles + cytosol)
a. Cytosol = liquid portion/non-organelles.

2. Structure: made up of fluid and organelles except


for nucleus

Analogy – All air, water, life that are in Rocklin, except


City Hall
C) Nucleus
Nucleus

1. Function: “Control Center.” Regulates DNA


& RNA actions.
2. Structure: membrane bound, contains DNA

Analogy – City Hall


D) Nuclear Envelope
Nuclear
Envelope

1. Function: Regulates what enters or exits the


nucleus.
2. Structure: Double Layer of Lipids

Analogy – Walls & Doors of City Hall


E) Nucleolus
Nucleolus

1. Function: Produces RNA, which are used to


make all proteins.
2. Structure: Inside Nucleus, separate from
DNA
Analogy – The Mayor
F) DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA (chromatin)

1. Function: information on how to make


proteins.
a. Chromatin – unorganized DNA (normal state)
b. Chromosomes – organized DNA (present before
cell division
2. Structure: Made up of nucleotides, locked in
the nucleus
Analogy – The Laws or City Code
G) Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough ER

Smooth ER

1. Function: Transportation route for proteins.


a. Rough ER: has ribosomes
b. Smooth ER: no ribosomes
2. Structure: tubes and channels
Analogy – Roads & Sidewalks
H) Ribosomes

Ribosomes

Free
Ribosomes

1. Function: Makes proteins.


2. Structure: small circular organelles

Analogy – Restaurants, Factories, Builders.


I) Vacuoles & Vesicles

Vesicles

1. Function: Storage for water, nutrients or


waste.
2. Structure: small membrane-bound organelle.

Analogy – Grocery stores, water tanks.


J) Lysosomes

Lysosomes

1. Function: packets of enzymes that break


down materials in a cell.
2. Structure: Small membrane-bound
organelles

Analogy – Recycling center


K) Mitochondria
Mitochondria

1. Function: Produce energy for the cell – site


of cellular respiration. “The Powerhouse”
2. Structure: Double membrane-bound, kidney
shaped.

Analogy – PG&E
L) Golgi Apparatus

Golgi
Apparatus

1. Function: Packages, labels and ships


proteins out of the cell.
2. Structure: Pancake-shaped layered
organelle

Analogy – Post Office


M) Cytoskeleton
Microfilaments

Microtubules

1. Function: Provide support and structure for


the cell.
a. Microfilaments
b. Microtubules
2. Structure: Tubules
Analogy – Wood, cement, steel beams
N) Centrioles (Animals Only)
Centrioles

1. Function: microtubules that help divide the


cell during cell division.
• Structure: Tubules

Analogy – Rocklin High School vs. Whitney High School


O) Cilia & Flagella
Flagella Cilia
Flagella

1. Function: provides movement for the cell or


objects moving by the cell.
2. Structure:
a. Flagella – 1 long fiber
b. Cilia – many short fibers
Analogy – Cars or bicycles.
P) Chloroplasts (Plants only)
Chloroplasts

1. Function: site of photosynthesis (converting


sun and CO2 into sugar).
2. Structure: Membrane bound organelles that
contain chlorophyll
Analogy – Solar Panels
Q) Cell Wall (Plant cells only)
Cell Wall

1. Function: Provides support for the cell and


the plant.
2. Structure: Made of cellulose

Analogy – ground, rock wall


Cell Parts Analogy
• Create an analogy (besides the city
analogy) for the cell and its parts
Stadium Example:
• Cell membrane: wall of stadium, gates
• Cytoplasm: everything inside the stadium.
• Nucleus: the control room for the stadium.
• Etc…