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INTERNSHIP PRESENTATION ON

“INTRODUCTION TO AIRCRAFT DESIGN”

Submitted by

NAGAIAH REDDY H C (1JB14EE016)

During the academic year


(2018-19)

Under the Guidance of

Mr. M J CHANDRASHEKAR Mr. A SUBRAMANIAN


Assoc. Professor DGM, ARDC
Dept. of EEE HAL
DEPT. OF EEE
State-owned
Type
ABOUT HAL enterprise
Aerospace and
 Industry
defence
1940 (in 1964,
Founded company took on
current name)
Bangalore,
Headquarters
Karnataka, India
Chairman T Suvarna Raju
Aerospace
equipment
Military aircraft
Products Communication &
Navigation
equipment
Space systems
US$2.8 billion (FY
Revenue
2014)
32,108 (FY MARCH
Employees
2014)

DEPT. OF EEE
HISTORY OF HAL
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came
into existence on 1st October 1964. The
Company was formed by the merger of
Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India
Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot,
Kanpur
Late Mr. Seth Walchand Hirachand set up
Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in
association with the erstwhile princely State of
Mysore in December 1940
The Government of India became a shareholder in
March 1941 and took over the Management in
1942. DEPT. OF EEE
HAL- PRESENT SCENARIO
 MISSION OF HAL
“To become a global player in the aerospace
industry”
 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is the largest PSU
under the Department of Defense Production and is a
Navaratana Company.
 Presently ranked 34th among the global defense
companies
 HAL is one of the largest aerospace companies in
Asia with its annual turnover to be running above
US$ 2 billion.
 It has several facilities throughout India including
Nasik, Korwa, Kanpur, Koraput, Lucknow, Bangalore
and Hyderabad. DEPT. OF EEE
HAL ARDC
 Aircraft Research & Design Centre (ARDC) is one the 10
R&D centres of the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. It has
designed 13 successful aircrafts for the Indian Air Force.

 Aircraft Research and Design Centre (ARDC), began as


the Engineering Department of Hindustan Aircraft Limited
during 1948-49 and has grown into a full-fledged R&D
Centre

DEPT. OF EEE
BASIC AERODYNAMIC FLIGHT
THEORY
• AERODYNAMICS-
 The word comes from two Greek words:

Aerios = concerning the air.

Dynamis = meaning powerful

 Aerodynamics is the study of objects in motion through the


air and the forces that produce or change such motion

DEPT. OF EEE
BASIC FLIGHT THEORY

• FOUR BASIC FOURCES IN FLIGHT-

– Lift- The upward force

– Thrust- The forward force

– Weight/Gravity- Gravity the Downward


force

– Drag- The rearward force


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The Four Forces of Flight

The four forces act on the airplane in flight and


also workDEPT.
against
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each other.
THE FOUR FORCES

DEPT. OF EEE
WHAT IS WEIGHT ???

DEPT. OF EEE
The earth’s gravity pulls down on
objects and gives them weight.

Weight counteracts lift.

DEPT. OF EEE
WHAT IS DRAG ???

DEPT. OF EEE
WHAT IS LIFT ???

DEPT. OF EEE
HOW LIFT IS GENERATED???

 Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s


Principle are used to explain lift.
 Bernoulli – Bernoulli’s Principle states that,
as air speeds up, its pressure goes down.
 He focused his studies on the curvature of the
wing, and the differing air pressure over the top
and bottom of the wing.
 Newton – Newton’s Third Law states that
for every action there is an equal and
opposite reaction.
 He focused his studies on the deflection of air
or fluid on an object and its reaction.
(Newton’s 3rd Law)
 To explain the lift phenomena we have to
understand the meaning of Aerofoil structure
DEPT. OF EEE
AEROFOIL

An Aerofoil is a device that gets a


reaction from air moving over its
surface. When it is moved through the
air it produces lift. Wings, horizontal
and vertical tail surfaces and propellers
are all examplesDEPT.
ofOFaerofoil
EEE
EQUATION INVOLVED IN FLIGHT
THEORY

L=(1/2)dv2sCL
DEPT. OF EEE
WHAT IS THRUST ???

DEPT. OF EEE
SIMPLIFIED AIRCRAFT MOTION
BALANCED FORCES
In order for an airplane
to fly straight and level,
the following
relationships must be
true:
Thrust=Drag
Lift = Weight
This is called
Straight and
DEPT. OF EEE Level Flight
SIMPLIFIED AIRCRAFT MOTION
UNBALANCED FORCES

DEPT. OF EEE
AXES OF MOVEMENT OF ANY
AIRCRAFT

Axis of Yaw
(Vertical Axis) Axis of Rotation:-
Intersect at the centre
of gravity –The axes of
movement of any
aircraft are basically
imaginary lines about
which the aircraft may
Axis of Roll rotate about while
(Longitudinal Axis)
flying

Axis of Pitch
(Lateral Axis)
DEPT. OF EEE
EXPLAINATION OF ALL AXES

• The Longitudinal Axis-


This is an imaginary line running length wise through
the micro-light from bow to stern. Movement around
this axis is called rolling.
• The Vertical Axis-
This is a line through the centre of gravity going
downwards and at right angles to the longitudinal axis.
Movement around this axis is called yawing
• The Lateral Axis-
This is sometimes called the pitch axis. This is the line
through the centre of gravity and running span wise from
wing tip to wingtip and at right angles to the longitudinal
axis. Movement around this axis is called pitching
DEPT. OF EEE
VARIOUS MOTIONS AROUND THE
AXES

• Yawing along vertical axis–


side to side motion

• Pitching along lateral axis –


up and down motion (nose
up and nose down)

• Rolling along longitudinal


axis – rolling motion
DEPT. OF EEE
Pitch Around the Lateral Axis

DEPT. OF EEE
Roll Around Longitudinal Axis

DEPT. OF EEE
Yaw Around the vertical Axis

DEPT. OF EEE
AIRFRAME UNITS
 Propeller
 Power-plant ( jet engine)
 Cockpit
 Engine cowl
 Fuselage
 Wings
 Stabilizers-Horizontal
stabilizer and Vertical
stabilizer
 Flight control surfaces-
ailerons, rudder, flaps,
spoilers, elevators, slats
 Landing gear-nose landing
gear and main landing gear
DEPT. OF EEE
AIRFRAME UNITS

DEPT. OF EEE
WINGS
o The part of the plane that
creates lift and controls roll.

o Has a rounded leading edge


and tapered trailing edge
which helps create lift.

o The wing design uses


Bernoulli’s Principle.

DEPT. OF EEE
POWERPLANT (JET ENGINE)

Turns the propeller at


high RPM’s to
increase thrust

DEPT. OF EEE
ENGINE COWLING

• Cover to protect the


engine and make the
plane aerodynamic

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COCKPIT

 Place where the pilot


controls the airplane.

 The airplane control,


gauges, and indicators
are held here.

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MAIN LANDING GEAR

 A frame with wheels that


allow the plane to take-off
and land.

 Some airplanes have


retractable landing gear.

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NOSE LANDING GEAR

 The front landing gear


when the plane has three
wheels to land.

DEPT. OF EEE
HORIZONTAL STABILIZER

 Helps airplane maintain


level flight

DEPT. OF EEE
VERTICAL STABILIZER

 Vertical to the horizontal


stabilizer.
 Helps to airplane maintain
level flight

DEPT. OF EEE
FLIGHT CONTROL SURFACES

i. AILERONS

ii. ELEVATORS

iii. RUDDER

iv. FLAPS

v. SPOILERS
DEPT. OF EEE
AILERONS

 AILERON- The ailerons form a


part of the wing and are
located in the trailing edge of the
wing towards the tips. The
control stick is connected by
means of wires or hydraulics to
the wing’s ailerons. By turning
the stick, the pilot can change the
positions of the ailerons
 Located at the top of the trailing
edge of the wings.
 Controls rolling.
DEPT. OF EEE
ELEVATORS

 Elevators are the movable


control surfaces hinged to
the trailing edge of the
horizontal stabilizer. The
control stick is connected
by means of wires or
hydraulics to the tail
section’s elevators.
 In line with and behind the
horizontal stabilizer.
 Controls pitching.
DEPT. OF EEE
RUDDER

 The rudder is a moveable


control surface attached to
the trailing edge of the
vertical stabilizer. The foot
pedals are connected by
means of wires or hydraulics
to the rudder of the tail
section. The rudder can also
be used in controlling a bank
or turn in flight.
 Provides side to side control
of airplane.
 Controls yawing.
DEPT. OF EEE
FLAPS

 Located near at the trailing


edge of the wing near the
fuselage.

 Change the shape of wing

 Increase Lift and Drag

 Used on takeoff and landing

 The Flaps increase lift


DEPT. OF EEE
SPOILERS

 Spoilers are located in the


outer third of each wing.
When deployed a spoiler
kills the lift over that portion
of the wing while the other
wing retains full lift and
induces roll.
 They basically do the job of
spoiling the lift.
 Hence can be supposed as a
braking system for any
aircraft DEPT. OF EEE
CONCLUSION
 The joy of flying has fascinated the human race for centuries. Defense
avionics major & Navratana PSU Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
(HAL) is in the business of building a whole range of aircraft
helicopters and jet trainers. Besides, the company manufactures
aircraft components, overhauls fighter planes and trains future pilot’s
.its success in the design and development of light combat aircraft
Tejas and advanced light helicopter Dhruv has won admiration. HAL
is the backbone of India’s air defense and continues to occupy the
strategic importance reflecting a new pace of growth.
 Today the faster growing sector is the aviation sector & is likely to be
a boon for the entire job market. It deals with the design &
development of aircrafts.
 Based on the instruments that are used in the manufacture of the
various aircrafts. A deep knowledge of these instruments is crucial in
the perfect design & manufacture of the aircrafts. This will benefit
those who have interest in the instrument & will provide the reader
with the deeper knowledge of the topic.
DEPT. OF EEE
THANK YOU
ANY QUERIES
?????

DEPT. OF EEE