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BUILDING ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY

OSHIN JOE – 44
JANARDHAN REDDY – 56
SRINATH KOMAKULA – 61
DEEPTHI – 67
MEHER SHIVANI – 72
MOHAMMAD IMTIYAZ – 73
MOHAMMED IRFAN - 74
PLANNING FOR ACCESSIBILITY
• Accessibility based planning is a spatial planning methodology that centralises goals of people and
businesses and defines accessibility policy as enhancing people and business opportunities.
• Traditionally, urban transportation planning has mainly focused on the efficiency of the transport system
itself and is often responding to plans made by spatial planners.
• Such an approach neglects the influence of interventions in the transport system on broader and often
conflicting economic, social and environmental goals.
• Accessibility based planning defines accessibility as the amount of services and jobs people can access
within a certain travel time, considering one or more modes of transport such as walking, cycling, driving or
public transport.
• It thus provides planners with the possibility to understand interdependencies between transport and land
use development.
• Accessibility planning opens the floor to a more normative approach to transportation planning involving
different actors.
• For politicians, citizens and firms it might be easier to discuss the quality of access to education, services
and markets than it is to discuss the inefficiencies of the transport system itself.
• Accessibility is also defined as "the potential for interaction".
ACCESSIBILITY INSTRUMENTS

• Generally since the 1960s, accessibility instruments have been developed for a multitude of contexts and
scopes.
• These instruments have their focus on origins and on destinations, they measure access through time,
distance or cost and focus on different modes of transportation and geographical scales.
• Accessibility instruments are thus able to show what are the best accessible places or opportunities within a
city or region, considering one or more specific modes of transportation, timeslots and target groups.
• In addition to this, the maps, which are produced as the instrument output, are considered as considerably
useful when assessing the effects of new developments in a city.
POTENTIALS OF ACCESSIBILITY IN PLANNING PRACTICE

• Despite the high potential of accessibility in integrating the different components of urban planning, such as
land use and transportation and the large number of accessibility instruments available in the research
literature, the latter are not widely used to support urban planning practices.
• By keeping the accessibility language out of the practice level, older paradigms resist the more informed and
people- centred approaches.
• The existence of accessibility instruments is fairly acknowledged, but practitioners do not appear to have
found them useful or usable enough for addressing the tasks of sustainable urban management.
• So far, 24 Accessibility Instruments have been gathered, analysed and described so as to understand in detail
their characteristics, planning issues addressed and specific purposes, according to the developers’ view.
• In turn, these instruments are being tested in a series of workshops with multidisciplinary teams of
practitioners around Europe addressing the issue of usability from the practitioners’ viewpoint.
• In doing so, it is expected that the additional knowledge on the potential of accessibility instruments for
urban planning practice will have beneficial impacts on urban quality and decision making on urban land use
patterns.
CONFLICTS
• Conflict seems to be very synonym with construction projects and giving the impressions of problems
includes in increasing project cost, project delays, reduce productivity, loss of profit or damage in business
relationships.
• The main goal of this paper is to overview the factors of conflict in construction industry. Factors of conflict
due to behaviour factors includes reluctant to check for constructability, clarity and completeness and poor
communication among project team. Meanwhile the factors of conflict which is due to contractual problems
are such as late giving of possession, delay interim payment from client and unclear of contractual terms.
Whereas, contractor fails to proceed in a competent manner and late instructions from architect or engineer
are the factors of conflict which arise due to technical problems.

DEFINITION OF CONFLICT
• Conflict is doubt or questioning, opposition, incompatible behavior , controversy or antagonistic interaction
and disputes is one of the range of events considered as conflict .
CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

• CONFLICT CAUSES DUE TO BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS

• CONFLICT CAUSES DUE TO CONTRACTUAL PROBLEMS

• CONFLICT CAUSES DUE TO TECHNICAL PROBLEMS

• In order to prevent disputes, the first important action is to trace the origins of problems. construction
disputes have their instinct nature and characteristics, and thus the sources of disputes will vary from one
project to another. Primary sources of construction disputes include existence of errors, defects or omissions
in the contract documents, failure of someone to count the cost of an undertaking at the beginning, changed
condition, consumer reaction and people involved.
• Construction disputes, including speed of construction, cost and quality control, technological advances,
stringent building regulations and economic difficulties that becomes basics for many studies later regarding
conflict and disputes in construction industry. disputes can be generated by the people involved that is by
the stakeholders including architects, engineers, contractors and other project related professionals.
THE FOUR TYPES OF ALIENATION

1. Alienation of the worker from their product:


The design and development of a production rest not in the hands of a worker but within the decisions of the capitalists.
A worker does not have control over what he or she intends to produce or the specifications of his or her product.
2. Alienation of the worker from the act of production:
The production of goods and services within a capitalist society is repetitive and mechanical that offers little to no
psychological satisfaction
to the worker. Labour seems coerced because a worker undertakes this as a means of survival.
3. Alienation of the worker from their species-essence:
The species-essence or “Gattungswesen” of an individual comprises all of his or her innate potentials. Under a capitalist
mode of production, an
individual losses identity and the opportunity for self-development as he or she is forced to sell his or her labour-power as a
market commodity.
4. Alienation of the worker from other workers:
The reduction of labour to a mere market commodity creates the so-called labour market in which a worker competes
against another worker.
Labour is traded in a competitive labour market instead of considering it as a constructive socioeconomic activity
characterized by collective
common effort.
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