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Low Voltage hazard

Low voltage hazard


• Low voltage ranges from 110 to 120V
• 15-20 amps
• Voltage used in outlets of homes
• We often take for granted that exposure to
low voltages are a low risk for injury or harm.
This is far from the truth and a mistake that
could result in major injury or even death.
• Potential low voltage hazards are present in
every home and workplace. These low
voltages commonly result in electric shock
from direct contact
• Electric shock
Occurs when aperson comes in contact with an
electrical energy source electrical energy flows
through a portion of the body causing a shock
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
Burns
Muscle spasms
Death
FACTORS
Resistance
Time
Path
Arcing- Electrical arcing happens when an
electric current flows through the air between
two conductors
OCCURS IN
loose electrical connections. This can be at wire
splices, at circuit breaker connections, wall
switches, receptacles, or within an appliance.
CAUSE
insulation failure
poorly maintained electrical systems and
equipment in the house
EFFECTS
Burns – since it is a consentration of the arc fault
current and voltage in one place realeasing energy
Fire-heat generated from the arc can brake down
insulation triggering electrical fires.
Electrical shock
Common electrical hazards
•overloaded circuits
•worn or cracked insulation on electrical cords
•extension cords used with heaters
•power outlets without covers (children hazard)
•loose electrical outlet boxes.
Electrical safety systems
• Electrical safety systems and devices are employed to
prevent thermal and shock hazards.
• FUSES
• Fuses are built as a safety measure if there is too much
current flowing through a circuit. Fuses have a thin metal
strip (usually made of copper or zinc) that keeps the
connection open. However, if an electrical current exceeds
the maximum current allowed within that fuse it will
overheat and cause the metal strip to melt. The destroyed
metal strip breaks the connection and stops electricity
flowing through. Fuses are there to protect appliances
from electric power surges and overheating which is one
of the main causes of electric fires.
• GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS
• Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI’s) are built to
detect any anomaly within the electric system and
react in rapid time to cut off the power.(prevents
electrecution)
• An arc-fault circuit interrupter also known as an arc-
fault detection device is a circuit breaker that breaks
the circuit when it detects an electric arc in the
circuit it protects to prevent electrical fires
What are the levels of effect of current?

AC current (mA) Effect on human body

1 Slight tingling sensation


2-9 Small shock
10-24 Muscles contract causing you to freeze
25-74 Respiratory muscles can become
paralysed; pain; exit burns often visible
75-300 Usually fatal; ventricular fibrillation; entry &
exit wounds visible
>300 Death almost certain; if survive will have
badly burnt organs and probably require
amputations
What should you do in an electrical emergency?

For low voltage electricity >50 V AC and 110 V DC


• remove the source of electricity supply
• commence CPR if trained
• call the emergency number on site

For high voltage electricity >1000 V


• call the emergency number for your site
• don’t go near the casualty
• don’t touch the casualty or try to free them with anything
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LV5Ub2XPYTE