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 Concrete is one of the most commonly used

building materials.
 Concrete is a composite material made from
several readily available constituents
(aggregates, sand, cement, water).
 Concrete is a versatile material that can
easily be mixed to meet a variety of special
needs and formed to virtually any shape.
 Ability to be cast
 Economical
 Durable
 Fire resistant
 Energy efficient
 On-site fabrication
 Low tensile strength
 Low ductility
 Volume instability
 Low strength to weight ratio
Cement
Water
Fine Agg
Coarse Agg
Admixtures
 Properties of concrete can improve with age as
long as conditions are favorable for the
continued hydration of cement. These
improvements are rapid at early ages & become
more slow for an indefinite period of time.
 Curing is the procedures used for promoting
the hydration of cement and consists of a
control of temperature & of the moisture
movement from & into the concrete.
 The aim of curing is to keep concrete
saturated or as nearly saturated as possible
because hydration reactions can take place
in only saturated water filled capillaries. So,
it is necessary to add some water to replace
the water lost by evaporation.
1. Methods which supply additional water to the
surface of concrete during early hardening
stages.
◦ Ponding
◦ Sprinkling
◦ Using wet covers
2. Methods that prevent loss of moisture from
concrete by sealing the surface.
 Water proof papers
 Use liquid membrane-forming compounds
 Forms left in place
3. Methods that accelerate strength gain by
supplying heat & moisture to the concrete.
 By using live steam (steam curing)
 Heating coils.
 Concrete uniformity is checked by conducting
tests.
 Slump test, air content test, unit weight test
(for fresh concrete)
 Strength test (for hardened concrete)
 Due to heteregeneous nature of concrete,
there will always be some variations. These
variations are grouped as:
◦ Within-Batch Variations : inadequate mixing, non-
homogeneous nature
◦ Batch-to-Batch Variations : type of materials used,
changes in gradation of agg., changes in moisture
content of agg.
Unit Weight Test
Air Content Test
 The principal properties of hardened concrete
which are of practical importance can be listed
as:
1. Strength
2. Permeability & durability
3. Shrinkage & creep deformations
4. Response to temperature variations

 Of these compressive strength is the most


important property of concrete. Because;
1. Concrete is used for compressive loads
2. Compressive strength is easily obtained
3. It is a good measure of all the other
properties.

 The strength of concrete prepared, cured &


tested under specified conditions at a given
age is depended on:
1. w/c ratio
2. Degree of compaction
 Compressive Strength : is determined by loading
properly prepared & cured cubic, cylindrical or
prismatic specimens under compression.
 Cubic: 15x15x15 cm and 20x20x20 cm
Cubic specimens are crushed after rotating them
90° to decrease the amount of friction caused by
the rough finishing.
 Cylinder: h/D=2 h=15(Turkey & US)
To decrease the amount of friction, capping of the
rough casting surface is performed.
 The compressive strength value depends on the
shape & size of the specimen.

 Cylindrical specimens (15x30) may show


compressive strength values 75-85% of the
20cm cubes for normal concrete. Because of the
frictional forces developed at the ends of the
specimen.
 Tensile Strength: can be obtained either by
direct methods or indirect methods.

 Direct methods suffer from a number of


difficulties related to holding the specimen
properly in the testing machine without
introducing stress concentration & to the
application of load without eccentricity.
i. Direct Tensile Strength:
ii. Split Tension Test:

Due to applied compression load a fairly uniform


tensile stress is induced over nearly 2/3 of the
diameter of the cylinder perpendicular to the
direction of load application
2P P: apllied compressive load
σst =
πDl
D: diameter of specimen
l: length of specimen
 The advantage of the splitting test over the
direct tensile test is the some molds are used
for compressive & tensile strength
determination.

 The test is simple to perform & gives uniform


results than other tension tests.
Flexural Strength
iii.
The flexural tensile strength at failure or the
modulus of rupture is determined by
loading a concrete beam specimen. The
results obtained are useful because concrete
is subjected to flexural loads more than it is
subjected to tensile loads.
P

d
bd3
I=
c 12
b
M=Pl/4

Mc (Pl/4) (d/2) 3 Pl
σ= = =
I bd3/12 2 bd2
P/2 P/2

(Pl/6) (d/2) Pl
σ= =
bd3/12 bd2
M=Pl/6
1) Factors depending on the test method:
 Size of specimen
 Size of specimen in relation with size of agg.
 Support condition af specimen
 Moisture condition of specimen
 Type of loading adopted
 Rate of loading
 Type of test machine
2. Factors independent of test type:
 Type of cement
 Type of agg.
 Degree of compaction
 Mix proportions
 Type of curing
 Type of stress situation
σult σ-ε relationship is
nonlinear.
However, specially
for cylindrical
(40-50%)
σult
specimens with
h/D=2, it can be
εult assumed as linear
upto 40-50%σult
 Due to the
nonlinearity of the
σ-ε diagram, E is the
defined by:
1. Initial Tangent
Method
2. Secant Method
3. Tangent Method
They are estimated as:

ACI → E=15200 σc½ → 28-D cylindrical comp.str. (kgf/cm2)


TS → E=15500 W ½→ 28-D cubic comp.str. (kgf/cm2)
 Permeability is important because:
1. The penetration of some aggresive solution
may result in leaching out of Ca(OH)2 which
adversely affects the durability of concrete.

2. In R/C ingress of moisture of air into concrete


causes corrosion of reinforcement and results
in the volume expansion of steel bars,
consequently causing cracks & spalling of
concrete cover.
3. The moisture penetration depends on
permeability & if concrete becomes saturated
it is more liable to frost-action.

4. In some structural members permeability


itself is of importance, such as, dams, water
retaining tanks.

 The permeability of concrete controlled by


capillary pores. The permeability depends on
w/c, age, degree of hydration.
 In general the higher the strength of cement
paste, the higher is the durability & the lower
is the permeability.
 A durable concrete is the one which will
withstand in a satisfactory degree, the effects of
service conditions to which it will be subjected.

 Factors Affecting Durability:


 External → Environmental
 Internal → Alkali-agg. Reaction
Permeability
Characteristics of ingredients
 When water penetrates into concrete, it
dissolves the non-hydraulic CH (and various
salts, sulfates & carbonates of Na, K, Ca)

 Remember C-S-H+CH is produced upon


hydration of C3S & C2S

 These salts are taken outside of concrete by


water & leave a salt deposit called
“efflorescence”.
 Ground water in clayey soils containing alkali
sulfates may affect concrete.
 These solutions attack CH to produce gypsum.
Later, gypsum & calcium alumina sulfates
together with water react to form “ettringite”.
 Formation of ettringite is hardened cement
paste or concrete leads to very large volume
expansion & cracking.
 Moreover, Magnesium sulfate may lead to the
decomposition of the C-S-H gel.
 Seawater contains some amount of Na & Mg
Sulfates. However, these sulfates do not
cause severe deleterious expansion &
cracking because both gypsum & ettringite
are soluble in solutions containing the Cl
ion. However, problem with seawater is the
frequent wetting & drying & corrosion of
reinforcing steel in concrete.
 To reduce the sulfate attack
1. Use low w/c ratio→reduced permeability &
porosity
2. Use proper cement →reduced C3S & C3A
3. Use pozzolans →they use up some of the CH to
produce C-S-H
 Concrete is pretty resistant to acids. But in high
concentrations:

 Causes leaching of the CH (The H+ ions)

 Causes disintegration of the C-S-H gel.


 Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

 Accompanied by shrinkage → carbonation shrinkage

 Makes the steel vulnerable to corrosion (due to


reduced alkalinity)
 Alkalies of cement + Reactive Silica of Aggs →
Alkali-Silica Gel

 Expansions in volume

 Slow process

 Don’t use aggs with reactive silica or use cements


with less alkalies.
 Electrochemical reactions in the steel rebars of a
R/C structure results in corrosion products
which have larger volumes than original steel.

 Thus this volume expansion causes cracks in


R/C. In fact, steel is protected by a thin film
provided by concrete against corrosion.
However, that shialed is broken by CO2 of air &
the Cl- ions.
 Water when freezes expands in volume. This
will cause internal hydraulic pressure & cracks
the concrete.

 To prevent air-entraining admixtures are used


to make air-entrained concrete.
 Aggregates have to be hard & resistant to
wear.

 Bleeding & finishing practices are also


important.
 W+C+C.Agg.+F.Agg.+Admixtures→Weights?
 There are two sets of requirements which enable
the engineer to design a concrete mix.

1. The requirements of concrete in hardened state.


These are specified by the structural engineer.

2. The requirements of fresh concrete such as


workability, setting time. These are specified by the
type of construction placing & compacting
techniques & also transporting.
 Mix design is the process of selecting suitable
ingredients of concrete & determining their
relative quantities with the objective of
producing as economically as possible concrete
of certain minimum properties such as
workability, strength & durability.

 So, basic considerations in a mix design is cost


& min. properties.
 Cost → Material + Labor

Water+Cement+Aggregate+Admixtures

Most expensive so use as little as possible


Using less cement causes a decrease in shrinkage
& increase in volume stability.
Min.Properties →Strength has to be more than..
Durability→Permeability has to be
Workability→Slump has to be...
In the past specifications for concrete mix
design prescribed the proportions of cement,
fine agg. & coarse agg.
1 : 2 : 4

Work. of Fine Coarse


cement Agg. Agg.

 However, modern specifications do not use


these fixed ratios as strength prepared with
that method varies considerably.
 For this reason, modern specifications min
compressive strength, grading of agg, max
w/c ratio, max cement content, min entrained
air & etc.

 Most of the time job specifications dictate the


following data:
 Max w/c
 Min cement content
 Min air content
 Slump
 Strength
 Durability
 Type of cement
 Admixtures
 Max agg. size
1. Choice of slump (Table 14.5)
2. Choice os max agg. size
3. Estimation of mixing water & air content (Table
14.6 & 14.7)
4. Selection of w/c ratio (Table 14.8)
5. Calculation of cement content
6. Estimation of coarse agg. content (Table14.10)
7. Calculation of fine agg. content
8. Adjust for agg. moisture
9. Trial batch adjustments
 The properties of the mixes in trial batches are
checked & necessary adjustments are made
toend up with the min required properties of
concrete.

 Moreover, a lab trial batch may not always


provide the final answer. Only the mix made &
used in the job can guarantee all properties of
concrete are satisfactory in every detail for the
particular job at hand. That’s why we get
samples from the field mixes for testing the
properties.
Example:
 Slump → 75-100 mm

 Dmax → 25 mm
 f’c28 = 25 MPa
 S.G. of cement = 3.15
 Non-air entrained

C.Agg F.Agg
SSD Bulk Sp.Gravity 2.68 2.62
Absorption 0.50% 1.00%
Total Moist.Content 2.00% 5.00%
Dry rodded Unit Weight 1600 kg/m3 –
F.M. – 2-6
1. Slump is given as 75-100 mm
2. Dmax is given as 25 mm
3. Water & Air content from Table 14.6
Slump & Dmax → W=193 kg/m3
Entrapped Air → 1.5%
4. w/c ratio from Table 14.8
f’c & non-air ent. → w/c=0.61 (by weight)
5. W = 193 kg/m3 & w/c=0.61 → C=193/0.61=316
kg/m3
6. C.Agg from Table 14.10
Dmax & F.M. → VC.A=0.69 m3
Dry WC.A = 1600*0.69 = 1104 kg/m3
SSD WC.A = 1104*(1+0.005) = 1100 kg/m3

7. To calculate the F.Agg content the volumes


of other ingredients have to be determined.

V= W
Sp.Gr.γw

Vwater = 193 = 0.193 m3


1.0*1000
Vcement = 316 = 0.100 m3
3.15*1000
VC.Agg. = 1110 = 0.414 m3
2.68*1000

Vair = 0.015 m3 (1.5%*1)


∑V = 0.722 m3 → VF.Agg = 1-0.722 = 0.278 m3

WF.Agg = 0.278*2.62*1000 = 728 kg/m3

8. Adjustments for Moisture in Aggs


∑W = 193+316+1110+728 = 2347 kg/m3

W(Dry) = WSSD (1-Abs) (Dry) 1104 + 720

WWet = WDry / (1-Moist) (wet) 1127 + 758

Extra WWater = (1127-1110) + (758-728) = 47kg


WWater = 193-47 = 146kg

∑W = 146+316+1127+758 = 2347 kg/m3


9. Trial Batch
Usually a 0.02 m3 of concrete is sufficient to
verify the slump & air content of the mix. If
the slump & air content are different
readjustments of the proportions should be
made.
 TS 500 → Based on, 28 day compressive strength
of 15cmx30cm cylindrical specimens cured in
water at a temperature of 20±2°C
 fck : characteristic strength is that volume of
strength below which not more than 10% of test
results are expected to fall.
 If you do 10 tests only 1 of them may fall below fck.
 BS14, BS16, BS20, BS25 → Normal strength
concrete with fck=14, 16, 20, 25 N/mm2 (MPa)
 BS30, BS35, BS40, BS50 → High strength
concrete.
 In the design of concrete mixes → fcm (Target mean
strength)
 fcm ≥ fck
 fcm = fck + 1.28 σ (σ:standard deviation)
 In case σ is not known
fcm = fck + Δf → BS14 – BS16 → 40 kgf(cm2)
BS20 – BS30 → 60 kgf
Higher → 80 kgf
Good control

Poor control

fck fcm1 fcm2

For concrete’s with good control you can


specify for a lower target mean strength.
 For 50 m3 of concrete → at least 3 specimens
should be tested
 For concrete class > BS25 → at least 6 specimens
 Average of the tests → fcm
 Min of the tests → fcmin

 Concrete is acceptable if the following hold


1. fcm ≥ fck + 30 kgf/cm2
2. fcmin ≥ fck - 30