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 In 1985 the FCC allowed the opening of several bands of

the wireless spectrum. Allowing those bands to be used

without government license.
 The bands were taken from the scientific, medical, and
industrial bands of the wireless spectrum.
 The FCC made these bands available for communication
 Using spread spectrum technology, which spreads a
radio signal over wide range of frequencies they were
able to steer around interference from other equipment.
 When Ethernet became popular vendors came to the
realization that a wireless standard was best.
• A hotspot is any location where wi-fi
network access is made publicly available
• Hotspots are equipped with a broadband
• Internet connection , and one or more
• Points that allow users to access the
• Wirelessly.
• Hotspots can be setup in any public
• That can support an internet connection.
 Hotels and Resorts
 Shopping malls
 University
 Coffee shop
 Airports
 Railway station
 Park etc.
 Mobility
 Ease of Installation
 Flexibility
 Cost
 Reliability
 Security
 Roaming
 Speed
 Speed – Slower than cable.
 Range – Affected by various medium.
 Travels best through open space.
 Reduced by walls, glass, water, etc
 Security – Greater exposure to risks.
 Unauthorized access.
 Compromising data.
 Interference
 High power consumption
 Limited range
Wi-fi technology uses
Signals to transmit dada
just Like our old radio sets
TVs and Walkie-talkies
 Many electronic devices use Wi-Fi
due to its simple functions.
 Companies use Wi-Fi to create
wireless networks within their
 Phone companies such as use
Wi-Fi Hot Spots for their users to
get free calling/internet access.
 Gaming companies like Nintendo
use Wi-Fi to synch their products
and to use global network usage.
 Home
 Small Businesses
 Travellers
 Basic concept is same as Walkie-talkies.
 A Wi-Fi hotspot is created by installing an access point
to an internet connection.
 An access point acts as a base station.
 When Wi-Fi enabled device encounters a hotspot the
device can then connect to that network wirelessly.
 A single access point can support up to 30 users and
can function within a range of 100 – 150 feet indoors and
up to 300 feet outdoors.
 Many access points can be connected to each other via
Ethernet cables to create a single large network.
 Access Point (AP) - The AP is a wireless LAN transceiver
or “base station” that can connect one or many wireless devices
simultaneously to the Internet.

 Wi-Fi cards - They accept the wireless signal and relay

information. They can be internal and external.(e.g PCMCIA Card for
Laptop and PCI Card for Desktop PC)

 Safeguards - Firewalls and anti-virus software protect networks

from uninvited users and keep information secure.
 MAC Address
 Filtering
 WPA2
 The future is Wi-Max
 Can reach over 1 km
in range and have a
maximum throughput
of 70 Mbps.