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By: Anish.L
Generic Tx Rx system

Antenna

Signal Signal
generation reception
transmission Connectors processing

Path loss
Cartography data: Digital modelling of real world
The “ real world” is modelled as
layered raster files and vector files.
Wave propagation (1)
Wave propagation (2)- environmental factor

## • Diffraction • Gas absorption

• Reflection
Wave propagation (3)
What is propagation model?
Propagation model: Mathematical representation of phenomenon of wave
propagation

## Heavily uses terrain

Deterministic information
ITU 525, Fresnel

Based on different
Propagation model Statistical/Emperical measurement data statistics
ITU 370, ITU 425

## Uses statistical model with

some correction from
Mixed
available terrain information
Okamura, ITU 1546
Propagation model in ATDI tools (1)

Propagation
model

Diffraction Environment
Subpath model:
Core model: model effect:
Ground
Eg: ITU 525, Hata Eg: Degyout 94, Rain, ducting,
reflection
Bullington troposcattering

## Standard: For accurate terrain

Fine: medium resolution terrain
Area: Low resolution terrain
Propagation model in ATDI tools (2)

Core model

Environment effect

Diffraction Subpath
model model
Propagation model in ATDI tools (3)
Hydrometeor
Propagation loss Free space Sub path loss Model specific loss
loss scatter

## Diffraction Atmospheric Clutter

loss loss attenuation
Propagation model components

In concept
Some propagation models do not
split into these 3 conditions easily;
in some cases they do not apply

TX
Location

RX Location(s)
Diffraction model (1)

• Ld=6.9+20log[(v–0.1)+sqrt(1+(v–0.1)2)],
v=sqrt(2)h/r

Sub-path loss

## Correction term derived from surface reflection model

Standard method

Coarse method
Terms definitions

## • Digital Terrain Model (DTM) – bare ground height – man-made modifications

tend to be ignored such as cuttings and embankments, etc

• Clutter – What is on the bare ground including trees, buildings (suburban, urban)

• Absorption

## • Diffraction Power absorbed by obstacle

Diffraction loss
• T = transmitter

How clutter is used

Clutter code 9
Used for “building
layers” – not covered
in this presentation

## Applies factor to clutter

height ie, if forrest 15m
high diffraction point
= 0.6 x 15 = 9m

Clutter height
dB/km applied every time
Applied at all locations
clutter is in transit Flat attenuation
Applied only at
Clutter settings

Clutter

## T/R over ground

RX
spot

Over
Clutter
T/R over ground Over Clutter
RX
relaxed Ground Ground
Clutter general concept (1)

## Represents pixel of Represents pixel of

clutter urban ground (DTM)
Clutter general concept(2)

## Represents pixel of clutter urban

dB/Km

Diffraction loss
From last diffraction
point

## Represents pixel of clutter urban

with clutter height x and dB/km y

## Clutter attenuation = MIN (diffraction loss , absorption loss)

Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss
Flat + absorption (1)

Diffraction loss
from last diffraction
point

Flat attenuation
Absorption loss = 4 x y / DTM raster size

## At Location A (RX height > Clutter height)

Clutter attenuation = MIN(Diffraction loss , Absorption loss)
Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss

## At Location B (RX height < Clutter height)

Clutter attenuation = MIN(Diffraction loss , Absorption loss) + Flat attenuation
Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss + Flat attenuation
Flat + absorption (2)

10dB
10dB

## Represents pixel of clutter urban

with clutter height x and dB/km y

Clutter attenuation = MIN (Diffraction loss , Absorption loss = summation of flat loss for
each separate obstacle)
Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss which is summation of flat loss for
Each separate obstacle
Clutter height

Clutter height 8m

## Clutter height 30m

10dB
Flat + diffraction mode
Diffraction loss
Only if RX > clutter height

## If RX height < Clutter height Clutter loss = diffraction + clutter attenuations

into RX pixel)
Clutter when using DSM or DEM
Clutter not used in calculation
Clutter might be used to identify
Roof tops / street levels
Other clutter modes

• CCIR and UER are similar to flat + diffraction, except with standard
values for mobiles (CCIR) and TV reception (UER)

## • TSB-88 Mode (NTIA report TSB-88-B similar to flat + diffraction except

clutter attenuation need to change with frequency (clutter height should
be set to zero)

• USER same as flat + diffraction except where RX height > clutter height
in which case it is diffraction + flat attenuation into last pixel

## • Clutter code 9 has a specific role and is used as identification for

building layer
Terrain resolution and propagation model

## Low resolution data Medium resolution data High resolution data

DTM at 2m
DTM at 100m DTM at 30m
BLG file at 2m
Typical content 1:250.000 scale map Clutter file giving different
Clutter file at 2m
urban heights as aggregates
100m clutter (4 classes)
Topographic map True-orthophoto

Empirical models
Deterministic models
(with appropriate tuning)
Applicable propagation
model Deterministic models
(with appropriate margins) 3D ray tracing if needed

Detailled coverage
Canyon effect with
constructive/destructive
Standard coverage OFDM signals