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Radio-Propagation models

By: Anish.L
Generic Tx Rx system

Antenna

Signal Signal
generation reception
and ready for and
transmission Connectors processing

Path loss
Transmitter Receivers
Cartography data: Digital modelling of real world
The “ real world” is modelled as
layered raster files and vector files.
Wave propagation (1)
Wave propagation (2)- environmental factor

• Rain attenuation • Ducting

• Diffraction • Gas absorption

• Reflection
Wave propagation (3)
Application of radio spectrum
What is propagation model?
Propagation model: Mathematical representation of phenomenon of wave
propagation

Heavily uses terrain


Deterministic information
ITU 525, Fresnel

Based on different
Propagation model Statistical/Emperical measurement data statistics
ITU 370, ITU 425

Uses statistical model with


some correction from
Mixed
available terrain information
Okamura, ITU 1546
Propagation model in ATDI tools (1)

Propagation
model

Diffraction Environment
Subpath model:
Core model: model effect:
Ground
Eg: ITU 525, Hata Eg: Degyout 94, Rain, ducting,
reflection
Bullington troposcattering

Diffraction model Subpath model

Standard: For accurate terrain


Fine: medium resolution terrain
Area: Low resolution terrain
Propagation model in ATDI tools (2)

Core model

Environment effect

Diffraction Subpath
model model
Propagation model in ATDI tools (3)
Hydrometeor
Propagation loss Free space Sub path loss Model specific loss
loss scatter

Diffraction Atmospheric Clutter


loss loss attenuation
Propagation model components

In concept
Some propagation models do not
split into these 3 conditions easily;
in some cases they do not apply

TX
Location

RX Location(s)
Diffraction model (1)

• Ld=6.9+20log[(v–0.1)+sqrt(1+(v–0.1)2)],
v=sqrt(2)h/r

Different method of modelling diffraction

Bullington/Millington method Deygout 94 method


Sub-path loss

Correction term derived from surface reflection model

Standard method

Coarse method
Terms definitions

• Digital Terrain Model (DTM) – bare ground height – man-made modifications


tend to be ignored such as cuttings and embankments, etc

• Clutter – What is on the bare ground including trees, buildings (suburban, urban)

• Absorption

• Diffraction Power absorbed by obstacle

Diffraction loss
• T = transmitter

• R = receiver
How clutter is used

Clutter code 9
Used for “building
layers” – not covered
in this presentation

Applies factor to clutter


height ie, if forrest 15m
high diffraction point
= 0.6 x 15 = 9m

Clutter height
dB/km applied every time
Applied at all locations
clutter is in transit Flat attenuation
Applied only at
Receiver pixel
Clutter settings

Clutter

T/R over ground


RX
spot

Over
Clutter
T/R over ground Over Clutter
RX
relaxed Ground Ground
Clutter general concept (1)

Represents pixel of Represents pixel of


clutter urban ground (DTM)
Clutter general concept(2)

Represents pixel of ground (DTM)

Represents pixel of clutter suburban

Represents pixel of clutter urban


dB/Km

Diffraction loss
From last diffraction
point

Represents pixel on ground (DTM)

Represents pixel of clutter urban


with clutter height x and dB/km y

Absorption loss = 4 x y / DTM raster size

Clutter attenuation = MIN (diffraction loss , absorption loss)


Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss
Flat + absorption (1)

Diffraction loss
from last diffraction
point

Flat attenuation
Absorption loss = 4 x y / DTM raster size

At Location A (RX height > Clutter height)


Clutter attenuation = MIN(Diffraction loss , Absorption loss)
Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss

At Location B (RX height < Clutter height)


Clutter attenuation = MIN(Diffraction loss , Absorption loss) + Flat attenuation
Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss + Flat attenuation
Flat + absorption (2)

Diffraction loss from last diffraction point

10dB
10dB

Represents pixel of ground (DTM)

Represents pixel of clutter urban


with clutter height x and dB/km y

Clutter attenuation = MIN (Diffraction loss , Absorption loss = summation of flat loss for
each separate obstacle)
Clutter attenuation = Diffraction loss + Absorption loss which is summation of flat loss for
Each separate obstacle
Clutter height

Clutter height 8m

Clutter height 30m


10dB
Flat + diffraction mode
Diffraction loss
Only if RX > clutter height

If RX height < Clutter height Clutter loss = diffraction + clutter attenuations


into RX pixel)
Clutter when using DSM or DEM
Clutter not used in calculation
Clutter might be used to identify
Roof tops / street levels
Other clutter modes

• CCIR and UER are similar to flat + diffraction, except with standard
values for mobiles (CCIR) and TV reception (UER)

• TSB-88 Mode (NTIA report TSB-88-B similar to flat + diffraction except


clutter attenuation need to change with frequency (clutter height should
be set to zero)

• USER same as flat + diffraction except where RX height > clutter height
in which case it is diffraction + flat attenuation into last pixel

• Clutter code 9 has a specific role and is used as identification for


building layer
Terrain resolution and propagation model

Low resolution data Medium resolution data High resolution data


DTM at 2m
DTM at 100m DTM at 30m
BLG file at 2m
Typical content 1:250.000 scale map Clutter file giving different
Clutter file at 2m
urban heights as aggregates
100m clutter (4 classes)
Topographic map True-orthophoto

Empirical models
Deterministic models
(with appropriate tuning)
Applicable propagation
Not advised
model Deterministic models
(with appropriate margins) 3D ray tracing if needed

Detailled coverage
Canyon effect with
constructive/destructive
Standard coverage OFDM signals
Not advised because of the
Diffusion effect
Predictable effects lack of accuracy of the
County/District based Multi-path effect
cartography
population analysis Power delay spread

Building/address based
opulation analysis