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The word journal comes from the Latin word

diurna which means “daily”. In ancient Rome,

short bulletins of battles, fires, and elections
compiled by government officials were
posted up in public places. These were
called acta diurna, meaning “daily events”.
Journalism is the occupation of writing for
publication in newspapers and other
- Noah Webster, by Fraser Bond

Journalism is the practice of investigation and

reporting of events, issues, and trends to a
broad audience.
Three Areas of Journalism:

1. Written
Periodicals, brochures, journals, books
2. Oral
3. Visual
Television, movies, documentaries
Periodical- is a publication that comes out at
regular intervals – daily, weekly, fortnightly,
monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.

Newspaper- prints more news, has no special

cover, and is printed on a special paper called
newsprint. News is printed on the front page as
well as on the inside and back pages.

Magazine- prints more features and human is

interest stories, has a special cover usually with a
big cut on it, and is printed on bookpaper.
Campus Paper- is a publication, either
mimeographed or printed, put out by staff
members whose names appear in the
masthead or editorial box.

A. Aid to the students

1. Provides opportunity for interesting writing.
2. Gives students the opportunity to learn how
to read the newspapers.
3. Acts as a stimulus to better work.
4. Develops students’ powers of observation
and discrimination concerning relative merits
of news articles.
5. Serves as an outlet and motivation for
journalistic writing.
6. Offers training in organization, business
methods, commercial art, salesmanship,
bookkeeping, and business management.
7. Develops qualities of cooperation, tact,
accuracy, tolerance, responsibility, and
B. Aid to the school and community
1. Informs the community on the work of the
2. Publishes school news.
3. Creates and expresses school opinion.
4. Makes known the achievements of the
5. Helps unify the school.
6. Encourages and stimulates worthwhile
7. Develops right standard of conduct.
8. Provides an outlet for student suggestions
for the betterment of the school.
9. Develops better interschool relationship.
10. Develops school spirit.
11. Develops cooperation between parents and
the school.
1. Information Function
It informs the readers of events that
happened, that are happening, or that will
still happen.
2. Opinion Function
Through the editorials and editorial
columns, the editor interprets the meaning of
the news, especially of the banner news, and
gives his opinion of important matters of
significant events of the day.
3.The Education Function
One of the most important functions of a modern
campus paper is to educate not only the
students but also the people in the community.
Sex education and family planning which used to
be taboo are now topics for discussion by
student writers in their school organs.
4. Watchdog Function
The school paper acts as the guardian of the
students’ rights. It serves as the eyes of the
5. Laboratory Function
It serves as the teaching tool for the budding
journalists. After they have learned, for example,
how to write news stories, they cover school
activities and write the news for publication.
6. Documentation Function
Important school events and worthwhile student
accomplishments and achievements are recorded
in the school paper for prosperity’s sake. Most
present-day histories have been on from old
files of newspapers.
7. Entertainment Function
The school paper, like an interesting book,
keeps the reader company especially when
he/she is alone. Most human interest stories
are interesting to read.
8. Developmental Function
Student-journalists include in his/her writing
scholastic as well as commercial journalism.
News is an oral or written report of a past,
present, or future event. It should be factual,
truthful, accurate, unbiased, and interesting.

News is basically about an event, idea, or a

reaction that is presented factually and
simply in a written form to give the reader an
idea of what is currently happening around
him or her, particularly on matters of interest
to the community.
1. Independence Day celebration
2. Inauguration of a new school building
3. Opening of a new college
4. Fire that razed the public market
5. Mayor’s visit to the campus
1. Merger of two colleges
2. Transforming the town into a city
3. Making family planning method compulsory
4. Penalizing owners of stray dogs
5. Increasing tuition fees
The event, idea, or opinion of a certain issue
should be timely to make it interesting.

The other term for timeliness is immediacy.

The more recent the event, the more
interesting it is to the community, and the
more people would be talking about it.
A news story should be factual, or one that is based
on real events or happenings, on real ideas or
opinions, and not the fruits of one’s creative mind.

3. Proximity – is the nearness of an event or happening

to the readers.

(Residents of a small town are more interested in the

inauguration of their new water system than on the
modernization of the water distribution project in
4. Prominence – focuses on the fame or infamy
of places, persons, things, or events.

People can also be prominent through the ff:

a. by being elected to a public office;
b. by accomplishing something extraordinary;
c. by being wealthy,or respectable in the
community; and
d. by being a witness to an event, a crime, or
an accident.
5. Significance
An event, idea, or opinion must not only be
important but should also be of interest to
the people in the community or the campus.

6. Oddity- refers to strange or unnatural

events, objects, persons, and places. An odd
story is interesting not because of its news
value but because of the human-interest side
of it.