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2102576 Digital Signal Processing

Dr.Somchai Jitapunkul
Digital Signal Processing Research Laboratory
Department of Electrical Engineering
Chulalongkorn University

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Course Outlines

‡ Introduction ‡ Filter Design Techniques


‡ Discrete-Time Signals and ‡ The Discrete Fourier
Systems Transform
‡ Sampling of Continuous- ‡ Computation of the Discrete
Fourier Transform
Time Signals
‡ Discrete Hilbert Transform
‡ The z-Transform
‡ Fourier Analysis of Signals
‡ Transform Analysis of Linear Using the Discrete Fourier
Time-Invariant Systems Transform
‡ Structures for Discrete-Time ‡ Introduction to Cepstrum
Systems Analysis and Homomorphic
Deconvolution
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Kibliography

‡ Text:
± A.V. Oppenheim, and R.W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal
Processing, Prentice Hall, 1989.
‡ References:
± J.G. Proakis, and D.G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing,
3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 1996.
± E.C. Ifeachor, and K.W. Jervis, Digital Signal Processing,
Addison Wesley, 1993.
± S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing, 2nd ed., McGraw-HILL,
2001.
± Etc.
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Examination and Grading

‡ Final Examination:
± Date: Monday 25 February 2001
± Time: 08:00 am ~ 12:00 am Paper Examination
± Time: 12:00 am ~ 17:00 pm (tentatively) Design Project
± Room: DSP Laboratory and neighbor room
± Kuilding: Engineering 4 (Charoen Vissawakam)
‡ Grading:
± Depend mainly on each individual achievement

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10 Outstanding Achievements Ketween 1964 and 1989
Selected by National Academy of Engineering, Washington D.C.

‡ Moon Landing
‡ Application Satellites
‡ Microprocessors
‡ Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing
‡ Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner
‡ Advanced Composite Materials
‡ Jumbo Jets
‡ Lasers Fiber-Optics Communications
‡ Genetically Engineered Products

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Grand Challenges in Science and Engineering
need high-
high-performance computing
Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington D.C.

‡ Prediction of Weather, Climate, and Global Change


‡ Speech Recognition and Understanding
‡ Machine Vision
‡ Vehicle Performance
‡ Superconductivity
‡ Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery
‡ Nuclear Fusion

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DSP Applications
‡ Image Processing ‡ Military
± Pattern recognition ± Secure communication
± Robotic vision ± Radar processing
± Image enhancement ± Sonar processing
± Facsimile ± Missile guidance
± Satellite weather map ‡ Telecommunications
± Animation ± Echo cancellation
‡ Instrumentation/Control ± Adaptive equalization
± Spectrum analysis ± ADPCM transcoders
± Position and rate control ± Spread spectrum
± Noise reduction ± Video conferencing
± Data compression ± Data communication
‡ Speech/audio ‡ Biomedical
± Speech recognition/synthesis ± Patient monitoring
± Text to speech ± Scanners
± Digital audio ± EEG brain mappers
± equalization ± ECG analysis
± X-ray storage/enhancement
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Reasons of Using DSP
‡ Signals and data of many types are ‡ Flexibility in reconfiguring
increasingly stored in digital ‡ Ketter control of accuracy requirement
computers, and transmitted in digital ‡ Easily transportable and possible
form from place to place. In many offline processing
cases it makes sense to process them
digitally as well. ‡ Cheaper hardware in some case
‡ Digital processing is inherently stable ‡ In many case DSP is used to process a
and reliable. It also offers certain number of signals simultaneously. This
technical possibilities not available with may be done by interlacing samples
analog methods. (technique known as TDM) obtained
from the various signal channels.
‡ Rapid advances in IC design and
manufacture are producing ever more
powerful DSP devices at decreasing ‡ Limitation in speed & Requirement in
cost. larger bandwidth

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DSP in ASIC (Application Specific Integrated
Circuit)
Advantages Disadvantages
‡ High throughput ‡ High investment cost
‡ Lower silicon area ‡ Less flexibility
‡ Lower power consumption ‡ Long time from design to
‡ Improved reliability market
‡ Reduction in system noise
‡ Low overall system cost

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Discrete--Time Signals and Systems
Discrete
‡ One-dimensional signal (time) ‡ Stationary signal
‡ Multidimensional signal (spatial coordinate) ‡ Cyclostationary
‡ Non-stationary signal
‡ Real-valued function
‡ Complex-valued function ‡ Time-invariant system
‡ Time-varying system
‡ Dependent variable
‡ Independent variable ‡ Causal
‡ Non-causal
‡ Analog signal/system
‡ Continuous-time signal/system ‡ Deterministic signal
‡ Continuous-amplitude signal/system ± Periodic
‡ Discrete-amplitude signal/system ± Non-periodic
‡ Quantized boxcar signal/system ‡ Random signal
± Stochastic signal
‡ Discrete-time signal/system
± Noise or interference
‡ Sampled-data signal/system
‡ Digital signal/system
‡ Analytical signal
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‡ Distribution


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Discrete--time Signals and Systems
Discrete

‡ Continuous-time signals are defined along a continuum


of times and thus are represented by a continuous
independent variable.
‡ Discrete-time signals are defined at discrete times and
thus the independent variable has discrete values.
‡ Analog signals are those for which both time and
amplitude are continuous.
‡ Digital signals are those for which both time and
amplitude are discrete.

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Discrete--Time Signals : Sequences
Discrete

‡ Continuous-time signal will be sampled into set of its


values at definite time.
‡ If duration of each sampling time is fixed in equal period
called sampling period, T. Thus nth value of sampled
signal is equal to the value of the continuous-time signal
xc(t) at time nT.
‡ Representation of sampled values will be shown in a
sequence of numbers x = {x[n]}.
‡ 1/T is called the sampling frequency.

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Signal Processing Operation

‡ Time-domain/spatial-domain operation
‡ Frequency-domain operation

‡ Real-time operation
‡ Off-line operation

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Time--Domain Signal Operation
Time

Kasic operations Elementary operations


‡ Scaling : gain ‡ Integration / Summation
± Amplification ‡ Differentiation /
± Attenuation Difference
‡ Delay / Advance ‡ Production
‡ Addition ‡ Convolution

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Filtering

Filter Parameters ‡ Filter Types


‡ Passband ‡ Kasic Types
± Lowpass
‡ Stopband
± Highpass
‡ Transition band ± Kandpass
‡ Cutoff frequency ± Kandstop/band eject
‡ Kand Edge Frequency ‡ Other Types
± Notch filter
± Comb filter
± Single band
± Multiband

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Mathematical Tools

‡ Differential Equation
‡ Difference Equation
‡ Laplace Transform
‡ z-Transform
‡ Fourier Transform
‡ Hilbert Transform
‡ Discrete-Time Fourier Transform
‡ Discrete Fourier Transform
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Definitions ‡ Interference
‡ Modulation ‡ Noise
‡ Coding ± White Noise
± Gaussian Noise
‡ Multiplexing
± White Gaussian Noise (WGN)
‡ Equalization
‡ Modulated signal
‡ Quantization
‡ Carrier signal
± Scalar Quantization
± Vector Quantization
‡ Single Sideband (SSK) ‡ Spread Spectrum
‡ Double Sideband (DSK) ± Direct Sequence or Pseudo-noise
‡ Coding ± Frequency Hopping
± Source Coding ± Time Hopping
± Combination
± Channel Coding
‡ Hidden Markov Model
‡ Fading
‡ Kalman (Recursive Least Square) Algorithm
± Rayleigh Fading
‡ Pseudo-noise (PN) Sequence
± Ricean Fading ± M sequences
± Nakagami Fading ± Gold Sequences
± Kasami Sequences
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Modulation/Coding Methods
‡ Fixed-Length Code Word
‡ Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) ‡ Variable-Length Code Word
‡ Digital PAM or Amplitude-Shift Keying (ASK) ± Entropy Coding †Huffman Coding
‡ Phase Modulation ‡ Variable-to-Fixed Length Code Word
‡ Digital Phase Modulation or Phase-Shift ± Lempel-Ziv Algorithm
Keying (PSK) ‡ Temporal Waveform Coding
± Kinary PSK (KPSK) ± Pulse coded modulation (PCM)
± Quadrature PSK (QPSK) ‡ Adaptive PCM (APCM)
± Differential PSK (DPSK) ± Differential PCM (DPCM)
± Staggered Quadrature PSK (SQPSK) ‡ Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM)
‡ Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) ± Open-loop DPCM (D*PCM)
± Delta modulation (DM) or 1-bit or 2-level
‡ Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK) DPCM
± Continuous-Phase FSK (CPFSK) ‡ Linear DM (LDM)
‡ Amplitude Modulation (AM) ‡ Adaptive DM (ADM)
‡ Frequency Modulation (FM) ‡ Continuously Variable Slope DM (CVSD)

‡ Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) ‡ Model-Kased Source Coding


± Linear Predictive Coding (LPC)
‡ Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)
‡ Spectral Waveform Coding
‡ Continuous-Phase Modulation (CPM)
± Subband Coding (SKC)
‡ Minimum-Shift Keying (MSK) ± Transform Coding (TC)
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Multiplexing

‡ Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


‡ Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
‡ Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)
± Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) or Spread
Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA)
‡ Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM)

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Examples of Signals

‡ Electrocardiography (ECG) Signal


‡ Electroencephalogram (EEG) Signal
‡ Seismic Signals
‡ Engine Signal
‡ Speech, Musical Sound, and Audio Signals
‡ Vibration Signal
‡ Time Series Signal (daily stock prices, etc.)
‡ Images and Video Signals
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Typical Sampling Rates and System Latencies for
Selected Applications
Application I/O Sampling Rate Latency (Delay)

Instrumentation 1 Hz System dependent*


Control > 0.1 kHz System dependent*
Voice 8 kHz < 50 ms
Audio 44.1 kHz < 50 ms*
Video 1~14 MHz < 50 ms*
* Many times, a signal may not need to be concerned with latency: for example, a TV
signal is more dependent on synchronization with audio than the latency. In each of these
cases, the latency is dependent on the application.
‡Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice
Hall, 2001.

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Examples of Applications

‡ Sound Recording ‡ Telephone Dialing


Applications Applications
± Compressors and Limiters
‡ FM Stereo Applications
± Expanders and Noise Gates
± Equalizers and Filters ‡ Electronic Music Synthesis
± Noise Reduction Systems ± Subtractive Synthesis
± Delay and Reverberation ± Additive Synthesis
Systems
‡ Echo Cancellation in
± Special Effect Circuits
Telephone Networks
‡ Speech Processing
± Speech Recognition ‡ Interference Cancellation in
± Speech Communication Wireless Telecommunication
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Cellular Phone Wireless Communication
DSP System
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice Hall, 2001.

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ADSL Wired Communication DSP System
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice Hall, 2001.

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PCM Voiceband DSP System
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice Hall, 2001.

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Gigabit Ethernet DSP System
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice Hall, 2001.

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Hard Disk Drive DSP System
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice Hall, 2001.

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Motor Control DSP System
Nasser Kehtarnavaz, and Mansour Keramat, DSP System Design: Using the TMS320C6000, Prentice Hall, 2001.

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