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4 PICS 2 WORDS

__P_______
P_O__ _S
4 PICS 2 WORDS

POPULATION
PROBLEMS
A BILLION PEOPLE ARE
CHRONICALLY HUNGRY
A BILLION PEOPLE ARE LIVING IN
SLUMS
A BILLION PEOPLE ARE ILLITERATE

2/3 ARE WOMAN


• 2OO MILLION OF WOMAN DON’T
HAVE ACCESS TO CONTRACEPTIVES

ABOUT HALF OF ALL


PREGNANCIES ARE UNWANTED
EXAMPLES OF POPULATION

PROBLEMS

• A BILLION PEOPLE ARE HUNGRY


• A BILLION PEOPLE ARE LIVING
IN SLUMS
• NEARLY A BILLION PEOPLE ARE
ILLITERATE
• MILLIONS OF WOMEN DON’T
HAVE ACCESS TO
CONTRACEPTION
WHAT IS
DEMOGRAPHY
?
Dr. Joel Cohen
Professor of Population
Columbia University

DEMOGRAPHY is the study of


populations of humans and non-
human species using quantitative
data and mathematical models as
tools of analysis.
“DEMOGRAPHY ALLOWS US TO
IMAGINE AND RE-IMAGINE THE
FUTURE”

Dr. Joel Cohen


(Sociology by Macionis)
• DEMOGRAPHY is the
study of human
population.
• Demography (from the
Greek term meaning
“description of people”)
is a specialty within
sociology that analyzes
the size and composition
of a population and
Demography
encompasses the study of
the size, structure, and
distribution of these
populations, and spatial
or temporal changes in
them in response to
birth, migration,
ageing and death. 

- Wikipedia
Demographic analysis can
cover whole societies, or
groups defined by criteria
such as education, nationality,
and ethnicity. - Wikipedia
Philip H. Hauser and Otis
Dudley Duncan
“ “Demography is the study of
size, territorial distribution and
composition of population,
changes therein, and the
components of such changes,
which may be identified as
natality, mortality, territorial
movement (migration), and
social mobility (change of
status).”
Demography studies the following:
Population size: the number of people in a
country, a state, a city, a region, or the world at a
given time
Population growth or decline: changes in the
number of people in a given geographic area over
time
Population processes: fertility, mortality, and
migration
Factors related to population processes:
diseases and socioeconomic characteristics
related to mortality, family formation, labor force
participation, government policies related to
fertility, differences in income and opportunities in
various areas, war and immigration policies, and
Population distribution: geographic
distribution, such as among states or between
rural and urban areas
Population structure: age and sex
composition, the growing proportion of the
population at advanced ages, the sex ratio at
birth, and the increasing proportion of the
population that is female with increasing age
Population characteristics: education,
income, labor force participation, marital
status, and race or ethnic group membership
—anything that has a value for each member
of the population and does not have the same
value for everyone
How does demography relate to other
field?
DEMOGRAPHIC
PERSPECTIVES
Two ways to think about population
change
1. An aggregate approach: What are the
components of population change (e.g. what
are the roles of births, deaths, and migration
in changes in population size)?
2. A causal or microbehavioral approach:
What are the causal factors or behavioral
mechanisms that lead to the decisions that
people make? What behaviors do individuals
adopt to implement their decisions?
FIELD OF
DEMOGRAPHY
• FORMAL
DEMOGRAPHY

-limits its object of study to the


measurement of population processes
- associated with the main demographic
processes, i.e., fertility, mortality, and
migration.
-to these, aging and spatial distribution are
often added as realms of specialization.
• SOCIAL
DEMOGRAPHY
- Its major focus is the impact of social and
cultural factors on demographic features of
society, such as patterns of marriage and
childbearing, the age-structure of the
population, life-expectancy, and so forth.
- social demography also encompasses
examination of the social consequences of
demographic change.
Demography as a Field
• In most of the rest of the world,
demography is considered a separate
discipline.
• In many countries, students can receive
bachelor’s degrees and advanced degrees,
such as doctoral degrees, in demography.
• There are many excellent demographers
throughout the world. However, the lack of
a disciplinary base can lead demographic
work to be excessively descriptive and a
theoretical.
Demography: Meaning, Scope
and Importance | Sociology
Article Shared By Divisha S

IMPORTANCE OF DEMOGRAPHY
(1) For the Economy:
Population studies help us to know how
far the growth rate of the economy is
keeping pace with the growth rate of
population. If population is increasing
at a faster rate, the pace of
development of the economy will be
slow. The government can undertake
appropriate measures to control the
growth of population and to accelerate
the development of the economy.
(2) For Society:
• When population is
increasing rapidly, the
society is faced with
innumerable problems.
Shortages of basic services
like water, electricity,
transport and
communications, public
(3) For Economic Planning:
• Data relating to the present trend in
population growth help the planners in
formulating policies for the economic plan
of the country. They are kept in view
while fixing targets of agricultural and
industrial products, of social and basic
services like schools and other
educational institutions, hospitals,
houses, electricity, transport, etc.
(4) For Administrators:
• The administrator has to
tackle and find solutions to
the problems arising from
the growth of population.
They are migration and
urbanization which lead to
the coming up of shanty
towns, pollution, drainage,
water, electricity,
transport, etc. in cities.
(5) For Political System:
• It is on the basis of the census
figures pertaining to different
areas that the demarcation of
constituencies is done by the
election commission of a
country. The addition to the
number of voters after each
election helps to find out how
many have migrated from other
places and regions of the
YOU
~Shiela M. Timban