Sunteți pe pagina 1din 78

“Strengthening Filipino Responses in

the Homes, Schools and Communities”

A Trainers Manual on Positive
Approach to Child Discipline
 At the end the sessions, participants are able to:
 Discuss relevant concepts of positive approaches to child
disciplining as will be applied in School Setting
 Identify various alternative positive approaches in lieu of
corporal punishment
 Develop and demonstrate positive approaches as
appropriate to age, gender and “discipline” situations
with pupils/students
WHY Positive Approach to Child

WHAT is Corporal Punishment vs.

Positive Discipline?

HOW Positive Approach to Child

Discipline be the practice in Schools
Activity 0
True or false
Punishment is directed at the
objectionable behavior, and
the child will accept its
consequence without
resentment. It is a response
that is directed at the
Discipline is a response that is
directed at the individual. It
represents a desire of one
person to hurt another; and, it is
an expression of hostility rather
than corrective love.
Corporal Punishment is any
punishment in which physical, non
physical force and other forms
are/is used intended to cause
some degree of pain or discomfort,
however light.
Scolding and ridiculing the
child is a form of corporal
Among equally important
reasons, a positive approach to
child discipline builds a
mutually respectful relationship
with students and among
“Naaalala mo pa Ba?”
(15 -25 minutes)

Methodology: group discussion (15 minutes

preparation/discussion and presentation)
 Remind the participants that the sharing is
confidential. There maybe participants who are
willing to or uncomfortable with this exercise – so it
is okay not to share.

 Exert effort to process the feelings with

finality/closure so that they feel better if necessary,
suggest referral to an expert.

 Request only for memories from those who are truly

ready to share with others

 Make sure you are able to refer the participants’

responses to the information that will be provided on
the succeeding lectures in this module.
 At the end of the session, the participants
will be able to differentiate the concept and
effects of corporal punishment
 Serve as springboard and resource for the
discussions on corporal punishment and
positive approaches to disciplining children
in various settings
 Printed or photocopy of questionnaire
 Markers/ pens
 VIPP cards
1. Group participants into three and by gender

2. In 10 minutes, recall all the positive and

negative experiences in your childhood; how
were you disciplined by your parents or
caregivers or teachers?

3. Which experience stand out? And on what

setting and venue (home, school or barangay).
 How did you feel when you were recalling
your experiences?
 How do you feel now that you are an adult?
 If you were an adult then, what would you
have done?
 What realizations can you make out of the
responses given?
 Ouractions and perspectives differ as we
age. Thus, there are acts which we commit
that we regret doing
Today’s children will become the leaders of
tomorrow. Hence the development of
children into healthy, responsible and
productive as adults is an important to
social and economic investments.

One of the best ways of developing

conscientious and responsible children is
through discipline.
“No violence against children is justifiable;
all violence against children is
Sergio Pinheiro, UN Study on Violence Against Children
PROVEN - Violence Against Children in Schools,
Homes, Community, Care and Justice Institutions,
the Workplace, and, cyberspace – EXIST
 UN World Report on Violence Against
 Regional FDGs with EAP Children and Adults
2003 -2005
 VariousResearches and Studies in the
Philippines 2006-2011
 Inthe Philippines – reported and unreported
cases of violence against children e.g.
corporal punishment inflicted on
pupils/students, bullying, sexual abuse
 Indicates– some teaching and non-
teaching officials are overzealously
exercising their substitute parental
authority to the extent of inflicting
corporal punishment to their students.
is a response that Is directed at the
is directed at the objectionable
individual. behavior, and the
It represents a child will accept
desire of one its consequence
person to hurt
another; and it is without
an expression of resentment.
hostility rather
than corrective
Is any punishment in which physical, non
physical force and other forms are/is used
intended to cause some degree of pain or
discomfort, however light.

Physical and non-physical forms of
 Hitting,
 ‘smacking’,
 ‘slapping’,
‘spanking’ children, with the hand or with an
implement –
 a whip
 Stick
 belt,
 shoe,
 wooden spoon
 hanger
But it can also involve, for example,
 Kicking
 shaking or throwing children
 Scratching
 Pinching
 Biting
 pulling hair or boxing ears
 forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions,
 Burning
 forced ingestion
 Belittles
 Humiliates
 Denigrates
 Scolding
 Scapegoats
 Threatens
 Scares or
 Ridicules the child.
Reasons Parents Children

Stubbornness; 54% 46%

Anger 12% 24%

Formation of 33% 62%

good moral
Ensure a 31% 22%
better future
Prevalence and Effects of Corporal Punishment in Urban and Rural Setting in the Philippines, Plan Germany/ EU 2011
 Creates fear in the child.
 Engenders feelings of confusion, resentment and anger.
 Lowers the child’s self esteem.
 Engenders a more external locus of control.
 Carries a strong potential for escalation.
 Trains a child to use violence. Perpetuates the cycle of
violence within families
 Is associated with more behavioral problems.
 Adversely affects the child’s cognitive functioning.
 Stunts internalization of moral values and capacity for
Dr. Violeta Bautista, a clinical psychologist
 The discipline act is
 not commensurate to the offense committed by
the child;
 used frequently and without valid reason;
 not appropriate to the age, gender, physical and
mental state of the child.
 done due to impulsive anger with the purpose of
hurting the child;
 Child sustains physical or non-physical injuries and
is in pain especially the vulnerable parts of the
 If it humiliates the person of the child
 does not mean punishment or conflict
between parents and child.
 it means helping a child learn from mistakes
and develop self control. All children need
the security that comes with knowing the
rules and boundaries of behavior; without
these guidelines they feel at a loss.
 Requires… Flexibility from the parents,
using different strategies to match child’s
growth and development.
Dr. Anita Gurian, Child Study Center r. Anita
 Buildinga mutually respectful relationship
with students and among students
 Consistent:
 Clear communication
 Reinforcement of expectations, agreements or
 Child and Human Rights Based
 Intended to Safeguard the Rights of
 is part of an education process.
 It is a way of thinking and an approach to
teaching that:
 Helps children develop
 appropriate thinking and behavior in the short and
 self-discipline and confidence.

 Guides children to be in harmony with self and

 Teaches life-long skills and values
 Builds a culture of respect for human rights

Save the Children

Problem Solving and Responding
with Positive Discipline

Recognizing Individual Differences

Understanding Child Development

Rights Warmth
Principles Pedagogical
Providing Structure

Setting long-term goals

Child Rights Principles Pedagogical Principles

“Positive Discipline in Everyday Teaching” by Save the Children
 Set Guidelines with clear expectations
 Establish clearly your expectations
 Explain the reason for rules

 Encourage the child’s independent thinking and

negotiation skills

 Teach the children about the effects of their action;

providing information on how to make a good

 Provide unconditional support… will help the child

 Stop, look and Listen…

 Be fair and flexible

 Manage stress …. Control anger

 Check the causes of that behavior

 Take “time-in” for regular updating and dialogue

 Administer discipline in private

 Administerdiscipline firmly, thoroughly and with

Module Sessions
Session 1
Managing Behavior of Children ages 4-6 Years

Session 2:
Managing Behavior of children ages 7 – 12
Session 3:

Managing Behavior of Students ages from 12

to under 18 Years

Managing Behavior of
Children Ages 4 to 6
 At this stage, children continue to
extensively explore the physical and social
world, developing preferences for and
against particular people, activities and
 An increasing sense of independence is
expressed through an attitude of “I can do
it” and an insistence on following their own
ways of doing things.
 The child is often “disciplined” by parents,
teachers and other persons in authority over
the child at this stage in this school for
various reasons.
 Gradually, children increase their ability to
accept disappointing events and outcomes as
well as the postponement of eagerly
anticipated events.
 During this period, children learn behaviors
that are considered appropriate by their
society, according to their own cultural
At the end of the session, participants should be
able to:
1. Explain in their own words the reasons for the
way children behave as they do;

2. Describe positive approaches to child discipline

in handling specific children behavior;

3. Identify specific situations where different

behaviors of children are exhibited in a Learning
or Day Care Centers;
4. Describe common practices of teachers in
disciplining pupils in Learning or Day Care Centers;

5. Demonstrate the use of positive approaches as

an effective way of disciplining pupils; and

6. Enumerate different ways by which incidences

of various forms of abuses, violence,
discrimination, and bullying can be lessened
within the school premise through positive
discipline approach.
1. Get a copy of the song “Batang Bata ka
2. Everybody sings.
3. Count off: A,B,C to form groups.
4. Every group selects a Facilitator, a
Recorder, and a Reporter.
5. Each group gets a copy of task.
6. Facilitator reads the task to the group.
7. Group does the task.
8. Group Reporter presents their output.
1. What did you feel during the activity?
2. What is your opinion to the situations
shared by Group A?
3. Have you also encountered the same
situation? How did your teacher
respond to your behavior?
4. Describe common practices of
teachers in disciplining pupils in
Learning or Day Care Centers;
1. What did you feel during the activity?
2. What is your opinion to the situations
shared by Group B?
3. Have you also encountered the same
situation? How did your teacher
respond to your behavior?
4. What were your feelings then?
5. What can you say about the output of
group B? Group C?
6. What are your realizations as a result
of the activity?
 Positive approaches to child discipline, as
an alternative way of responding to various
behavior of the pupil, greatly influence the
progressive and holistic growth and
development of the child.
 It can help the pupil achieve his/her
potential skills; it likewise creates an
attitude of optimism towards life and its
 Teachers and school personnel who are
prime movers of positive approach to
child discipline contribute immensely to
the total personality of the pupil as part
of the school community.
 Most importantly, through the practice
of positive approaches in disciplining,
the child will live in a safe, sound, and
violence-free school environment.
 Children gain successful and progressive
learning outcomes through safe learning
 Children develop their skills and talents
with the help of the positive attitude of
their teachers.
 Children are the most important part of
the learning process; they need to be
loved and appropriately safeguarded.
 Teachers are considered as facilitators
of learning not as perpetrators of
violent forms of discipline.
 School personnel are identified as one
of the sources of children’s support
services for their growth and
 Trust and self-confidence of the
children are facilitated through a
positive violence – free environment.

Managing Behavior of
Students Ages 7-12
years old
In this stage, children are adapting
to the school environment and are
sensitive about being punished
when making mistakes. Often,
when this happens, they tend to
withdraw and feel insecure. They
may show reduced interest and
motivation to study and may even
start to dislike going to school.
 Similarly, during this period of growth,
children are still adaptable. Good habits, such
as studying or helping with the house work,
can still be established and developed at this
time through positive reinforcement. The
feeling of being good at something is very
important for children. If children believe
they consistently fail to meet adult
expectations, they may develop an inferiority
 Children at this stage are in need of
support and encouragement. They begin to
establish social skills; thus, peer
relationships are critical. On the other
hand, they can clearly distinguish between
shared and private life, and develop a need
for their own privacy. In the process they
become aware that certain people, such as
teachers and parents among others, have
responsibility for or “power” over them.
At the end of the session, the participants
will be able to:

1. Provide analysis for the reason of why

child behave as they do;

2. Identify most appropriate positive

approaches to child discipline in handling
children’s behaviors.
1. Participants form themselves into 4
2. Each Group selects a Facilitator, a
Recorder, & a Reporter.
3. Each Group gets a copy of a Case.
4. Group discusses and answers the questions
given in the Case situation.
5. Groups write their answers on the manila
6. Group Reporter presents their output.
• In Alaine and Rico’s case, the teacher and the
principal used a punishment that is in violation
of three out of the four key Principles of UN
CRC, namely –Development, Participation, and
Protection. As such, it is harmful to the child.
However, if the teacher and the principal acted
calmly and respectfully then the teacher is
using Positive Approach to Child Discipline
 Children learn from the consequences of
their behaviors. Thus a sense of
responsibility among our students must be
 Students’ awareness of school policies is
 Physical and moral degradation adversely
affects the child’s well-being. It also
deprives the child of many of his/her
Teacher- Parent communication
must be enhanced.
Encouragement and support go a
very long way in boosting the
motivation of students to study
and become respectful and

Managing Behavior of
Students Above 12 to
Under 18 years old
At the end of the activities, the participants
should be able to:
• Find causes behind unacceptable behavior
and offer options to solve problem;
• Encourage students to be punctual in coming
to school;
• Give words of encouragement and inspire
students to value education;
• Explain the advantages of coming to school
prepared; and
• Demonstrate the value of honesty.
 Participants will be divided in groups and
each group will be provided copy of the
 Scenario will be discussed in each group for
15 minutes using the process questions
specific for each scenario
 After group discussion, each group will
present their output on a plenary
 Threat is a form of corporal punishment,
which does not yield positive results. Finding
out the cause of the behavior and providing
options would help ensure favorable solution
 Conduct home visitation to better
understand the student situation. Establish
rapport with the parents
 Humiliation is intimidating and does not
produce favorable results on both student
and the teacher. The possibility to resist and
further repeat similar behavior is high. No
one will ever realize mistakes when being
put to shame
 Public humiliation and ridicule is not good.
Finding the right time and place for a heart-
to-heart talk or time-in would be effective
A child would be discouraged and may no
longer attend classes if threatened
 Genuine encouraging words would help
students to double their efforts
 Giving options would usher, direct and guide
students to make up for their loss/es
• It is not enough that we are aware of all the
laws concerning offenses on child abuse and
definition of positive approaches to child
discipline. The most important is we should
know how to apply these information and
positive approaches in child discipline in real
life at home, in school particularly in
teaching and disciplining students.
• We adults should be the model to foster
harmonious relationship and we should be
able to inspire our students to value
education and develop their potential to the
• Teenage life is the most critical stage of an
• Communication, decision-making, harmonious
relationship and skills in solving problem should
be developed between teachers and students
• Children from 12 to under 18 years old become
more emotionally charged due to hormonal
imbalance. They tend to be enthusiastic but
easily discouraged
• Peers are very important. They may even
influence the development and behavior of their
peers or more than parents and teachers at this
• Children at this stage may experience confusion
over what adult roles should be
• They seek self-expression and identity
• It is important to note that during this stage,
their behavior serves to test out boundaries
with people in authority, such as parents,
teachers and caregivers
• Parents and adults should help the children
define their goals and objectives and assist
them in determining directions and positions
in life
• Children should develop the value of honesty,
humility, and sense of responsibility
Thank you