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Group 2 - Psychology I

Group members
27 March/ 13 April
 Analyze what is a psychological disorder
and how is it diagnosed
 Determine the types of psychological
disorders and their origin
 Identify the symptoms of each
psychological disorders
 Find out what is Psychotherapy and how
is it applied
What is a Psychological Disorder?
 A condition characterized by abnormal
thoughts, feelings and behavior
 Psychopathology is the study of
psychological disorders. Also refers to
the manifestation of psychological
What is a Psychological Disorder?
A behavioral psychological syndrome
or pattern that happens with an
individual which causes significant
distress or impairment or having a
considerably increased chance of
suffering pain, death, discomfort,
disability or an essential lack of
freedom which is not an expected
response to a particular situation.
Psychological Disorder may look
How is it diagnosed?
 A physical exam. Your doctor will try to
rule out physical problems that could
cause your symptoms.
How is it diagnosed?
 Lab tests. These may include, for
example, a check of your thyroid
function or a screening for alcohol and
How is it diagnosed?
 A psychological evaluation. A doctor or
mental health provider talks to you about
your symptoms, thoughts, feelings and
behavior patterns. You may be asked to fill
out a questionnaire to help answer these
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Neurodevelopmental disorders - This
class covers a wide range of problems
that usually begin in infancy or
childhood, often before the child begins
grade school. Examples include autism
spectrum disorder, attention-
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
and learning disorders.
Neurodevelopmental disorders
 those that are typically diagnosed during
infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
These psychological disorders include:
1. Intellectual disability
2. Global developmental delay
3. Communication disorders
4. Autism spectrum disorder
5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Schizophrenia spectrum and other
psychotic disorders - Psychotic
disorders cause detachment from reality
— such as delusions, hallucinations,
and disorganized thinking and speech.
The most notable example is
schizophrenia, although other classes of
disorders can be associated with
detachment from reality at times.
 A very common brain disorder which
causes people to abnormally interpret
their senses of reality
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Bipolar and related disorders - This
class includes disorders with alternating
episodes of mania — periods of
excessive activity, energy and
excitement — and depression.
Bipolar and related disorders
 Bipolar - characterized by shifts in mood
as well as changes in activity and
energy levels
 Mania - characterized by feeling overly
excited and even hyper
 Depressive Episodes - characterized by
feelings of intense sadness, guilt,
fatigue, and irritability
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Depressive disorders - These include
disorders that affect how you feel
emotionally, such as the level of
sadness and happiness, and they can
disrupt your ability to function. Examples
include major depressive disorder and
premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Depressive disorders
 Depressed mood most of the day or
 Little interest in almost all activities
 Significant changes in weight or appetite
 Agitated or decreased level of activity
 Fatigue or loss of energy
 Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide
 Feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Anxiety disorders - Anxiety is an
emotion characterized by the
anticipation of future danger or
misfortune, along with excessive
worrying. It can include behavior aimed
at avoiding situations that cause anxiety.
This class includes generalized anxiety
disorder, panic disorder and phobias.
Anxiety disorders
 Anxiety disorders are a group of
mental disturbances characterized by
anxiety as a central or core symtom
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Obsessive-compulsive and related
disorders - These disorders involve
preoccupations or obsessions and
repetitive thoughts and actions.
Examples include obsessive-compulsive
disorder, hoarding disorder and hair-
pulling disorder (trichotillomania).
Obsessive-compulsive and
related disorders
 obsessive-compulsive disorder is an
anxiety disorder characterized by
unreasonable thoughts and fears
(obsessions) that lead you to do a
repetitive behaviors (compulsions)
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Trauma- and stressor-related
disorders - These are adjustment
disorders in which a person has trouble
coping during or after a stressful life
event. Examples include post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress
Trauma- and stressor-related
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Dissociative disorders - These are
disorders in which your sense of self is
disrupted, such as with dissociative
identity disorder and dissociative
Dissociative disorders
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Somatic symptom and related
disorders - A person with one of these
disorders may have physical symptoms
with no clear medical cause, but the
disorders are associated with significant
distress and impairment. The disorders
include somatic symptom disorder
(previously known as hypochondriasis)
and factitious disorder.
Somatic symptom and related
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Feeding and eating disorders - These
disorders include disturbances related to
eating, such as anorexia nervosa and
binge-eating disorder.
 Elimination disorders - These
disorders relate to the inappropriate
elimination of urine or stool by accident
or on purpose. Bedwetting (enuresis) is
an example.
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Sleep-wake disorders - These are
disorders of sleep severe enough to
require clinical attention, such as
insomnia, sleep apnea and restless legs
 Sexual dysfunctions - These include
disorders of sexual response, such as
premature ejaculation and female
orgasmic disorder.
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Gender dysphoria - This refers to the
distress that accompanies a person's
stated desire to be another gender.
 Disruptive, impulse-control and
conduct disorders - These disorders
include problems with emotional and
behavioral self-control, such as
kleptomania or intermittent explosive
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Substance-related and addictive
disorders - These include problems
associated with the excessive use of
alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and drugs.
This class also includes gambling
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Neurocognitive disorders - affect your
ability to think and reason. These
acquired (rather than developmental)
cognitive problems include delirium, as
well as neurocognitive disorders due to
conditions or diseases such as traumatic
brain injury or Alzheimer's disease.
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Personality disorders - A personality
disorder involves a lasting pattern of
emotional instability and unhealthy
behavior that causes problems in your
life and relationships. Examples include
borderline, antisocial and narcissistic
personality disorders.
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Paraphilic disorders - These disorders
include sexual interest that causes
personal distress or impairment or
causes potential or actual harm to
another person. Examples are sexual
sadism disorder, voyeuristic disorder
and pedophilic disorder.
Types of Psychological Disorders
 Other mental disorders - This class
includes mental disorders that are due
to other medical conditions or that don't
meet the full criteria for one of the above
 Your treatment team may include your:
 Family or primary care doctor
 Nurse practitioner
 Physician assistant
 Psychiatrist, a medical doctor who diagnoses
and treats mental illnesses
 Psychotherapist, such as a psychologist or a
licensed counselor
 Pharmacist
 Social worker
 Family members
 Psychotherapy is often used in combination
with medication to treat mental health
conditions. In some circumstances medication
may be clearly useful and in others
psychotherapy may be the best option. For
many people combined medication and
psychotherapy treatment is better than either
alone. Healthy lifestyle improvements, such as
good nutrition, regular exercise and adequate
sleep, can be important in supporting recovery
and overall wellness.
 a general term for treating mental health
problems by talking with a psychiatrist,
psychologist or other mental health provider.
 Psychotherapy can be helpful in treating
most mental health problems, including:
1. Anxiety 5. Personality
disorders disorders
2. Mood disorders 6. Schizophrenia
3. Addictions
4. Eating disorders
 Psychotherapy can help with a number
of life's stresses and conflicts that can
affect anyone. For example, it may help
5. Come to terms with an ongoing or serious
1. Resolve
physical conflicts with your
health problem, partner
such or someone
as diabetes, else
or your life (chronic) pain
6. Relieve
Recoveranxiety or stress
from physical ordue to work
sexual or other
abuse or
witnessing violence
7. Cope
Cope with
with major
sexuallife changes,
problems, such asthey're
whether divorce,
death of a loved
a physical one or the loss
or psychological cause of a job
8. Learn to manage
Sleep better, if youunhealthy reactions,
have trouble such
getting to asor
sleep road
rage or passive-aggressive
staying asleep (insomnia) behavior