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Fundamentals of DWDM Technology

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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The Optical Spectrum
Visible
Cosmic γ Light
Radiation Radiation UV Radiation IR Radiation Communications Radiation
X-ray Microwave, TV VHF SW
Radiation Radar

1020 1018 1016 1014 1012 1010 108 106

Frequency (Hz) (250 THz) (1 THz) (1 GHz)


(1 pm) (1 nm) (1 μm) (1 mm) (1 m) (100 m)

10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 100 102


Wavelength (m)
λ = Wavelength
c = 300 000 km/s f = Frequency
c=λxf Visible Fiber Transmission
Light Wavelength Range

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 μm

670 780 850 1300 15501625 nm

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Wavelengths Used

Optical fiber transmission makes use of 3 optical windows (850, 1300,


1550 nm) due to less attenuation at these wavelengths.

670 nm light is used for visible fault location

Low cost 780 nm lasers have been introduced for short haul access
networks.

For online test purposes and fiber monitoring 1625 nm has been used
to cover long haul applications.

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Optical Bands

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Optical Fiber Applications

Customer premises
Wavelength fiber type Maximum segment distance
(km) Applications

Multi Mode (MM)


0.1 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500
range core / cladding
100/140 μm

LAN /
85/125 μm
850 nm 62.5/125 μm

Single Mode (SM)


50/125 μm

Long haul
Access /
62.5/125 μm
1300 nm 50/125 μm
9/125 μm

1550 nm 100/140 μm
(with EDFA)

9/125 μm
780CORPORATE
nm 7
Optical Fiber Transmission
Optical Fiber consists of a silica based core and cladding surrounded by
protective polymeric material.

The refractive index of the core is greater than that of the cladding.

Light travels in the fiber using the concept of Total Internal Reflection.

It can travel either in single mode or multiple modes.

The light signal losses power (attenuation) and shape (dispersion)

Multiple light signals of different wavelengths travelling in the same fiber


will suffer interference (cross talk) and resonance (four wave mixing)

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Fiber Structure
An optical fiber consists of
three sections:
Core Cladding
 The core carries the
light signals

 The cladding keeps the light


within the core

 The coating protects the glass

Coating

CORPORATE 9
Optical Signal Coupling

Modulated Focusing Jacket


Semiconductor Lens
Optical Laser Cladding

Core
8-10 microns - Single Mode
~ 50 microns - Multimode

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Total Internal Reflection

45º 90º
Air n=1
Water n = 1.33

32º 48º > 48º


Critical Total Internal
Angle Reflection

Core n = 1.472
Cladding n = 1.458
83º Critical Angle > 83º Total Internal Reflection
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Index Profiles

Step Index Fiber


Diameter

Refractive Index

Graded Index Fiber


Diameter

Refractive Index

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Different Types of Fibers

Multi Mode Fiber n2 Cladding


Core diameter
 50 μm for step index
 62.5 μm for graded index n1 Core
Bit rate-distance product
> 500 MHz.km

Single Mode Fiber


Core diameter n2 Cladding
 9 μm
Bit rate-distance product n1 Core
> 100 THz.km

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Fiber Characteristics – Modal Dispersion

Input Pulse Output Pulse

Multimode Step Index

Multimode Graded Index

Single Mode Step Index

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Fiber Characteristics – Numerical Aperture

Measure of the fiber’s light acceptance angle ()


Light incident within the NA will propagate with the minimum attenuation

Input Surface Refraction


Cladding

 Core
y
l Ra
i ca NA = sin (0.16 and 0.25) Cladding
C ri t
 = 9° to 14°

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Different Fiber Types

Core Cladding Buffer n2 = 1.515


250 - 900 m n1 = 1.527
100 m 140 m

Multimode NA = 0.28
(step index)
SI 100/140
n2 = 1.540
125 m n1 = 1.540 to 1.562
50/62.5 m
Multimode NA = 0.21
(graded index)
GI 62.5/125
GI 50/125

125 m n2 = 1.457
9 m n1 = 1.471
Single mode NA = 0.1
(step index)
SI 9/125

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Type of Under Sea Cables
Shallow water Deep water

Light Weight
Single Armour
Double Armour
Light Weight with Protection

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Undersea OFC

Show Video

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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Signal Quality

• A signal degrades as it travels through the Optical Fiber.

• In Single Mode Fiber, there are three factors that affect signal quality

• Noise, measured as OSNR (Optical Signal to Noise Ratio)

• Attenuation

• Dispersion

• Fiber Nonlinearities

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Loss Mechanisms

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Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
Optical noise can come from the fiber as well as from optical devices.

Some devices, such as the EDFA can worsen the problem because the
amplifier will amplify with the signal it’s associated noise level input
as well as making it’s own noise contribution.

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Optical Signal to Noise Ratio

0
-5
-10 Target
-15

dBm -20
-15
-30
-15
-40
1530 1535 1540 1545 1550 1555 1560

Wavelength  (nm)

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Optical Attenuation

Pulse amplitude reduction limits “how far” signal goes


Examples
Attenuation in dB
10dBm 10 mW
Power is measured in dBm 1 mW
0 dBm
– 3 dBm 500 μW
– 10 dBm 100 μW
– 30 dBm 1 μW

Pi P0

T T

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Optical Attenuation

Specified in loss per kilometer


(dB/km)
0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm
0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm
1550
Window
1310
Window
Loss due to absorption
by impurities
1400 nm peak due to OH ions

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Fiber Attenuation Characteristics
Attenuation vs. Wavelength
S Band:1460–1530nm

L Band:1565–1625nm

2.0 dB/km Fiber Attenuation Curve

0.5 dB/km

0.2 dB/km

800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600

Wavelength (nm) C Band:1530–1565nm

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Attenuation Coefficient of Silica Fibers

10
1st window 2nd window 3rd window
Attenuation coefficient (dB/km)

Multimode fiber
Single mode fiber
1
IR absorption

0.1 Rayleigh

800 1000 1200 1400 1600 scattering 1/
Wavelength (nm)

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Single Mode Fiber – Attenuation
Wavelength dependent
Lowest at 1310 nm and 1550 nm with losses of 0.5 dB/km and 0.25 dB/km respectively.

3
Attenuation Coefficient (dB/km)

1 1260 1360 1430 1580


C D
A B

1280 1335 1480


0
1200 1300 1400 1500 1600
Wavelength (nm)
Ranges A and B are suitable for long-haul applications and ranges C and D are suitable for short-haul applications.

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Dispersion
• Dispersion causes pulse distortion, i.e. pulse "spreading"
effects
• Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less robust to
Chromatic Dispersion
• Limits "how fast“ and “how far”
10 Gbps
t
60 km SMF-28

40 Gbps
t
4 km SMF-28

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Dispersion Types

There are two types of dispersion

• Inter-modal dispersion – In multimode fibers, different


modes take different paths (hence, different time) to reach other end,
causing pulse broadening

• Intra-modal dispersion - Different wavelengths propagate at


slightly different velocities through the fiber, causing pulse broadening

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Types of Dispersion

• Chromatic Dispersion
 Different wavelengths travel at different speeds
 Causes spreading of the light pulse

• Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


 Single mode fiber supports two polarization states
 Fast and slow axes have different group velocities

 Causes spreading of the light pulse

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Chromatic Dispersion

Input Output
…1 0 0 0 1… … 1 1 0 1 1 …

Chromatic Dispersion results from the fact that different


wavelengths propagate with different velocities. That causes the
pulse to broaden.
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Combating Chromatic Dispersion

Use DSF and NZDSF fibers


G.653 and G.655

Dispersion Compensating Fiber

Transmitters with narrow spectral width

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DSF and NZDSF Fibers

Zero-dispersion wavelength 1.313 m


Zero-dispersion is measured at 1310
nm, coinciding with a low
attenuation window. G.652
Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber

Dispersion-shifted fibers are common


20
in the 1550 nm region. G.653

Non-zero dispersion shifted fibers are 10


common in the 1400-1500 nm

Dispersion (ps/km-nm)
region. G.655 0

-10

-20

-30

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6


Wavelength (m)

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Dispersion Compensating Fiber

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Dispersion Compensation

Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm)


+100
0
-100
-200
-300
No Compensation
-400 With Compensation
-500 Distance from
Transmitter (km)
Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable
Transmitter

Dispersion
Compensators

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Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

x x
Velocity V1 V1 > V2
t t

PMD
Velocity V2 Fiber
y y

Fiber without PMD

Fiber with PMD

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Polarization Mode Dispersion
Caused by ovality of core due to

 Manufacturing process
x Ideal fiber  Internal stress (cabling)
 External stress

y
x Actual fiber

y
PMD

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Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion

Factors contributing to PMD


Bit Rate
Fiber core symmetry
Environmental factors
Bends / stress in fiber
Imperfections in fiber

Solutions for PMD


Improved fibers
Regeneration
Follow manufacturer’s recommended installation techniques for the fiber
cable

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Fiber Nonlinearities

• Nonlinearities fall into two groups:


• Scattering phenomena
SBS — Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
SRS — Stimulated Raman Scattering

• Refractive index phenomena Kerr Effects


SPM — self-phase modulation (Intra-channel)
CPM — cross-phase modulation (Inter-channel)
FWM — four-wave mixing

• Nonlinearities can be avoided by limiting the total transmit power.

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Four Wave Mixing (FWM)
Power (dB)

S1 S2 S3

f
Δf Δf f
213 332
U2 U9
f f f
123 312 321
U1
U3 U6 U10
f f f f f f f
113 112 223 132 221 231 331
U4 U5 U7 U8 U11 U12
Frequen
f1- 2•Δf f1- Δf f1 f2 f3 f3+ Δf f3+ 2•Δf

Undesired optical signals U1 to U12 generated by FWM


from 3 equally-spaced signals S1 to S3 with frequencies
f1, f2 and f3 respectively.

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Bending Losses

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The 3 “R”s of Optical Transmission( Re-amplify, Re-shape, Re-
transmit )

A light pulse propagating in a fiber experiences 3 type of degradations

Pulse as it exits the fiber


Pulse as it enters the fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion

Phase Variation

Loss of Timing (Jitter)


(From Various Sources)
t t

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The 3 “R”s of Optical Transmission
The options to recover the signal from attenuation / dispersion / jitter
degradation are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape DCU

Phase Variation Phase Re-Alignment

O-E-O
Re-Generate
t t t
Re-gen, Re-shape and
Remove Optical Noise
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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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Transmitter and Receiver Functions

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Transmitter Simple Block Diagram

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LED and Laser Diode Power Spectra

S
-15 to -25 dBm 0 to -10 dBm +5 to -10 dBm

FWHM FWHM FWHM


100 nm 3 nm <<1 nm

1300 1300 1300  (nm)


LED FP laser diode DFB laser diode
(MLM laser) (SLM laser)
FWHM = Full Width Half Measurement
MLM = Multi Longitudinal Mode
FP = Fabry Perotdes
SLM = Single Longitudinal Mode
CORPORATE
DFB = Distributed Feed Back 5
8
Receiver Block Diagram

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Detector Spectral Response

Responsivity
(A/W)

Si InGaAs

1.0

Ge (23ºC)

0.5
Ge (0ºC)

850 1300 1550  (nm)

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LED, Lasers and Detectors

Show Video

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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Optical Amplifiers

Optical amplifiers boost the amplitude of passing light pulses, allowing for
transmission across greater distances.
Passing signals are amplified across a broad range of wavelengths.
OAs do not provide optical-electrical-optical conversion.
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) are the most common types of optical
amplifiers.

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Interaction between Atom and Light

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Optical Amplification

Attenuation
E2

E1

Amplification
E2

E1

Optical amplification by using population inversion


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Optical Amplifiers

Optical Amplifier
(EDFA)

Attenuated input
Composite signal Amplified output
Composite signal

Power in OA Power out


DWDM
Fiber

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Principle of Optical Amplifier

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Optical Amplifier Applications

OAs are used in three locations within a DWDM system / path

Tx Rx Booster / Post Amplifier


Boosts the signal at Transmitter end to
compensate relatively low output power of laser

Preamplifier
Tx Rx Boosts signal prior to Optical detectors
to increase the Rx sensitivity

Line Amplifier
Tx Rx Used at regular intervals to
compensate fiber transmission loss

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Typical Point to Point Optical Link

Tx Rx

Post Amplifier Line Amplifier Pre Amplifier


Signal Power

Receiver Sensitivity

Link Length

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OpticalOAs
Amplifier Characteristics
boost the amplitude of both optical signals and noise signals (gain is measured
in dB)

OAs insert noise into the system.

Optical receivers require acceptable OSNR values to distinguish signals from system
noise.

There should be enough optical power at the receiver for error free detection – BER
typically less than 10–12

Transmitter Receiver

Electrical ~1 mW 80 km of ~10 W Electrical


signal fiber signal
0.25 dB/km

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Types of Optical Amplifiers
Two Types of optical amplifiers available
1. Solid state Optical Amplifiers
• Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
2. Fiber Amplifiers
• Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA)
• Raman Amplification (RA)

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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Erbium is a rare metallic earth element that is used to amplify light signals
sent along fiber optic cable

When Erbium is lined in a fiber optic material such as glass, and light is
pumped through it the result is an “Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier”.

These amplifiers provide a large gain, which occurs when the fiber is
“pumped” by an additional light input at shorter wavelengths.

EDFA allows optical signals to be transmitted over long distances without the
need for signal regeneration particularly in DWDM.

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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
An EDFA consists of a short length of optical fiber doped by small controlled
amount of the rare earth element erbium
This rare earth element contributes in the amplification process in presence of
pump signal
Pump laser excites erbium ions which give extra energy to signal
Principle of operation is similar to principle of a laser

Pumping with 980 nm laser is more effective than with 1480 nm

Commonly used in submarine systems, and increasingly on land

Gain profile is not flat from the EDFA and need some flatting mechanism

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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Amplified signal
Weak signal
~1550 nm
WDM

EDF
Isolator

980 nm pump
Components:
Doped Fiber
WDM Coupler
Isolator
Pump Laser

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Configuration of EDFA

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EDFA Working
An optical amplification is done with the help of an optical pump laser of
selective wavelength

Erbium ions are excited by the pump signal and reached to the higher energy
states

Erbium ion at high energy state will be stimulated by the signal which leads
these ion return to a lower energy called ground energy state

During this transition these ion emits a radiation of wavelength similar to the
signal

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Erbium Doped
Fiber
• Core of the fiber is doped with erbium
• Concentration ~ 40 – 400 ppm
• Absorption at 980 / 1550 nm ~ 5.5 / 5.2 dB/m
• Fiber NA ~ 0.2 – 0.3
• Cut off wavelength ~ 930 nm
• Mode Field Diameter ~ 5.5 m at 1550 nm

Er doped
region

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Electrical Regeneration
Long haul fiber optic systems use repeaters or regenerators

PD LD

3R
1

Regeneration with
Retiming and Reshaping
• Limited by speed of electrical devices
• Single wavelength only
• Capacity upgradation difficult and expensive
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Amplifier vs. Regenerator

Optical amplifier amplifies an optical signal without changing it to electrical


signal
Repeaters amplifies the optical signal after converting back to electrical and
generates a new optical signal
Reshaping and timing of data stream
Optical amplifiers are required typically after 30 to 100 km
Regenerations are typically necessary after about 600 km (at 2.5 Gbps)

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Amplification vs. Regeneration

Regenerator

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Gain Profile Management

The gain profile management regulates the gain profile, or the gain-to-
wavelength characteristics, to meet the BER requirements of the
individual channels.

WDM Signal Input AMP Gain-WL WDM Signal Output from


to AMP Characteristics AMP
Power level

Wavelength(WL)

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Gain Profile Management

Purpose of the gain profile management is to compress, or equalize, the


wavelength dependent gain variation into acceptable limits using Gain
Equalizer (GEQ).

WDM signal AMP Gain-WL GEQ Gain-WL


input to AMP Characteristics Characteristics
Power level

Wavelength(WL)

(AMP + GEQ) Gain- WDM Signal Output From


WL Characteristics AMP

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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dBm vs. dB Power in dBm =
10.log (Power in mW / 1mW)
• dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (Absolute Value)
• dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)
0 dBm is 1 mW
Device Description Units

Transmitter Launch Power Decibels-mill Watts (dBm)

OSNR (Maximum) Decibels (dB)

Optical Device Interface Insertion Loss dB/Device

Fiber Optic Cable Attenuation Loss dB/km

Splice / Connectors Mated Pair Loss dB/Connector

Fiber Optic Cable Dispersion ps/(nm.km)

Receiver Sensitivity dBm

Dispersion Tolerance ps/nm

OSNR (Maximum) dB

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Optical Budget

Basic Optical Budget = Output Power – Receiver Sensitivity

Pout = + 6 dBm R = – 30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical budget is affected by:


 Fiber Attenuation
 Splices
 Patch Panels / Connectors
 Optical Components (Filters, Amplifiers, etc)
 Bends in Fiber
 Contamination (Dirt / Oil on Connectors)
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Power Budget

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Optical Amplifiers and Link Budget

Show Rest of the Video

CORPORATE 1
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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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Wavelength Division Multiplexing

The ability to use different wavelengths in a single fiber, to


combine and to split them.

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Why WDM ?

a) Overcome fiber exhaust / lack of fiber availability


problems (better utilization of available fiber)

b) Space and Power savings at intermediate stations

c) Easier capacity expansion

d) Cost effective transmission


e) No O-E-O conversion delays

f) Wave length leasing instead of Bandwidth leasing

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Any Disadvantages of this Technology ?
Yes of course…
a) Multi channel failure due to line failure
b) Requirements for more deliberate design of
dispersion management, gain profile
management and launched power due to broader
wavelength range to be handled

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WDM ….. Business Case.

Conventional TDM Transmission — 10 Gbps


40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
TERM 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
TERM RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 RPTR
1310 TERM
RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48
DWDM Transmission — 10 Gbps OC-48
OC-48 OC-48
OC-48
OC-48
OC-48 120 km 120 km 120 km OC-48
OA OA OA OA

4 Fibers Pairs 1 Fiber Pair


32 Regenerators 4 Optical Amplifiers
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…Why WDM ?
Traditional Network with Repeaters, no WDM
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE

WDM Network
75% fewer fibers
with Repeaters
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE

WDM Network with


75% less equipment
Optical Amplifiers
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
LTE LTE
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WDM – Protocol Independent

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CWDM and DWDM
CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
 Coarse wavelength spacing is 20 nm
 Cheaper Components as compared to DWDM.
 ITU-T G 694.

DWDM: Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing


– Dense wavelength spacing is 0.8 nm
– The wavelength spacing makes the transponder more complex and costlier
proposition.
– ITU-T G 692.

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CWDM vs. DWDM

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

CORPORATE 1
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WDM Components

Transponders.

Optical Multiplexers / Demultiplexers.

Optical Amplifiers.

OADM (Optical Add Drop Multiplexers).

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Components of DWDM Systems

Transponder interface
(OPEN System)

MUX/DEMUX

MUX/DEMUX
TX OEO OEO TX
RX RX
OA OADM OA
TX
TX RX
RX

Client Client

TX RX

Direct Interface To Client Devices


(Closed System)

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Transponders
A transponder is a wavelength converter.

They are optical-electrical-optical (OEO) in nature.

In optical fibers the data is carried at 850nm, 1310nm or 1550nm.

WDM systems need to multiplex different ITU-compliant wavelengths together.

Therefore, these signals must all be converted to a particular wavelength that is


suitable for either a CWDM or DWDM system.

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Transponder Block Diagram

 15xx

Transponder
ITU-T
Non-ITU-T Complaint Wavelength
Complaint Wavelength O-E-O
Wavelength
Conversion
TX
15xx.xx nm
850, 1310, 1550
TRANSPONDER

RX

OPTICAL FIBER

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Transponder Block Diagram

OADM

Transponders in
Terminal
Transponders in
OADM

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Transponders in DWDM

TRP SAN
TRP PDH

M TRP ATM

TRP GbE
fiber U TRP SDH /
SONET

X TRP Digital
Video

SDH

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Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
Optical multiplexers combine multiple wavelengths from several sources
for transmission across a single optical fiber.

Multiplexed optical signals are collectively referred to as the


composite signals.

Optical Demultiplexers separate different wavelengths from a composite


signal received from a single optical fiber.

Demultiplexed optical signals are then passed to optical receivers.

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Optical Multiplexer / De-multiplexers.

1
1...n
2

3

Optical Multiplexer

1

2 1...n

3

Optical De-multiplexer

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Optical Multiplexer (OMUX)

Wavelength Channel

λn #n
λ1 λ2 λ(n-1) λn
λ(n-1) #(n-1)
λ(n-2) #(n-2)

100 GHz
Transmit
Client

Amplifier
Aggregate Signal over n- (TXA)
channels with
wavelengths ranging
from λ1 to λn
λ3 #3
λ2 #2
λ1 #1

OMUX

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Optical Demultiplexer (ODMUX)

Wavelength Channel

λn #n
λ1 λ2 λ(n-1) λn
λ(n-1) #(n-1)
λ(n-2) #(n-2)

100 GHz
Receive
Client

Amplifier
Aggregate Signal over n- (RXA)
channels with
wavelengths ranging
from λ1 to λn.
λ3 #3
λ2 #2
λ1 #1

ODMUX

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Demultiplexing

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Reflection Grating Filters

Reflect a single
wavelength and
transmit the rest

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Diffraction Gratings
Each wavelength is diffracted at a different angle, using a lens
these wavelengths can be focused onto individual fibers.

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Arrayed Waveguide Grating

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Optical Add Drop Multiplexers (OADM)

Wavelength Selection devices.

Used to drop and add one or more optical channels from a composite
signal into a DWDM fiber.

Three signal paths


 Drop
 Add
 Pass through
1

2

3

Optical Add Drop Multiplexer


(OADM)
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OADM Signals

The “drop” signal is filtered out of the composite signal


The “add” signal is coupled to the composite signal
Pass through signals are neither dropped from nor
added to the OADM
Each signal path has an insertion loss in dB

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OADM Block Diagram

Pass Through Path New


Original Composite
Composite Signal
Signal

DWDM Fiber

Add Path
Drop Path

Channel-1 Channel-1
Drop Add

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DWDM Components (Others)

Variable Optical Attenuator

Dispersion Compensator

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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Show Video

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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ITU-T Standards for Optical Fibers
G.650 – Definitions and test methods for the relevant parameters of single
mode fibers
G.651 – Characteristics of a 50 / 125 μm multimode graded index optical fiber
cable
G.652 – Characteristics of a single mode optical fiber cable
G.653 – Characteristics of a dispersion shifted single mode optical fiber cable
G.654 – Characteristics of a 1550 nm wavelength loss minimized single mode optical
fiber cable
G.655 – Characteristics of a non zero dispersion single mode optical fiber cable

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ITU Recommendations G.652

SMF has
 Zero chromatic dispersion at 1310 nm
 High chromatic dispersion (approx 17ps/nm-km) at 1550 nm

Advantage
 Support WDM
 Low in cost

Disadvantage
 Suitable only for short and medium distances
 Needs Dispersion Compensation modules

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G.652 Fiber

1530 1610
20
Dispersion (ps/ nm.Km)

10

0
1310 1550  nm

-10

-20 EDFA Gain


Spectrum

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Dispersion Shifted Fiber
ITU Recommendations G.653
Wave guide dispersion and material dispersion cancel out each other at 1310 nm
Same cancellation is used at 1550 nm band
The reasons are principally:
 Fiber attenuation is a lot lower in the 1550 nm band
 Erbium doped fiber amplifiers operate in this band

Done by increasing the waveguide dispersion

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G.653 Fiber

1530 1610
20

10
Dispersion (ps/ nm.Km)

1310
0
1550  nm

NDSF

-10

EDFA Gain Spectrum


DSF
-20

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Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber

ITU Recommendations G.655

Low positive value of dispersion


 4 ps/nm/km in the 1530-1610 nm band

Advantages
 Minimizes unwanted effects Four Wave Mixing

 More distance than SMF

Disadvantage
 Not able to carry large optical power

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G.655 Fiber
10
Dispersion (ps/ nm.Km)

5
1610

0
1530  nm
1550

NZ-DSF
-5

DSF
-10

EDFA Gain
Spectrum
NZ-DSF
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Infrared Spectrum

O Band E Band S Band C Band L Band

1360-1460 nm
1260-1360 nm

1460-1530 nm

1530-1565 nm

1565-1625 nm
Future
CWDM CWDM DWDM DWDM DWDM

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ITU-T Channel Grid

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CWDM Optical Spectrum

ITU-T G.694.2 covers 18 wavelengths but just 8 out of those 18


show sufficient transmission performance on ITU-T G.652 standard
single mode fiber (Corning SMF 28) 1
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Wavelength Allocation for DWDM
(ITU-T G.692)

C Band (1530 – 1562nm)

L Band (1574 – 1608 nm)

The channel central frequencies are allocated in equal


frequency spacing of 100 GHz or 0.8 nm

All the channel central frequencies are anchored to


the 193.1 THz or 1552.52 nm reference.

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Carrier
Carrier

number
Channel
frequency
wavelength
C40 196.0 1530.33
C39 195.9 1531.12
C38 195.8 1531.90
C37 195.7 1532.68
C36 195.6 1533.47
C35 195.5 1534.25
C34 195.4 1535.04
C33 195.3 1535.82
C32 195.2 1536.61
C31 195.1 1537.40
C30 195.0 1538.19
C29 194.9 1538.98

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C28 194.8 1539.77

3. C13 is the Centre Wavelength


C27 194.7 1540.56
C26 194.6 1541.35
C25 194.5 1542.14
C24 194.3 1542.94
C23 194.2 1543.73
C22 194.1 1544.53
C21 194.0 1545.32
Tone Ch. 193.9 1546.12
C20 193.8 1546.92
C19 193.7 1547.72
C18 193.6 1548.52
C17 193.5 1549.32
C16 193.4 1550.12
C15 193.3 1550.92
C14 193.2 1551.72
C13 193.1 1552.52
C12 193.0 1553.33
Wavelength Allocation in C Band

C11 192.9 1554.13


C10 192.8 1554.94
C09 192.7 1555.75
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation and maintenance support

C08 192.6 1556.56


C07 192.5 1557.36
192.4 1558.17
Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in G.692

C06
C05 192.3 1558.98
C04 192.2 1559.79
C03 192.1 1560.61
C02 192.0 1561.42
4
1

C0 191.9 1562.23
1
(nm)

(THz)
Carrier
Carrier

number
Channel
frequency
wavelength
L01 190.4 1574.54
L02 190.3 1575.37
L03 190.2 1576.20
L04 190.1 1577.03
L05 190.0 1577.86
L06 189.9 1578.69
L07 189.8 1579.52
L08 189.7 1580.35
L09 189.6 1581.18
L10 189.5 1582.02
L11 189.4 1582.85
L12 189.3 1583.69

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L13 189.2 1584.53
L14 189.1 1585.36
L15 189.0 1586.20
L16 188.9 1587.04
L17 188.8 1587.88
L18 188.7 1588.73
L19 188.6 1589.57
L20 188.5 1590.41
Tone Ch. 188.4 1591.26
L21 188.3 1592.10
L22 188.2 1592.95
L23 188.1 1593.79
L24 188.0 1594.64
L25 187.9 1595.49
L26 187.8 1596.34
L27 187.7 1597.19
L28 187.6 1598.04
L29 187.5 1598.89
L30 187.4 1599.75
Wavelength Allocation in L Band

L31 187.3 1600.60


L32 187.2 1601.46
1602.31
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation and maintenance support.

L33 187.1
L34 187.0 1603.17
Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in G.692

L35 186.9 1604.03


L36 186.8 1604.88
L37 186.7 1605.74
L38 186.6 1606.60
L39 186.5 1607.47
4
1

L40 186.4 1608.33


(nm)

(THz)
Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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WDM Topologies

Point to Point provides WDM service between two locations.


Linear Add Drop provides connectivity to a series of locations,
typically starting at a head end and proceeding along a path.
Star provides connectivity from a central point to many destinations, in
some cases through multiple hops.
Ring provides a resilient backbone to carry a large number of services
of virtually any type of data.

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Point to Point Topology

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Star Topology

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Ring Topology

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Optical Protection Schemes

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A Typical DWDM Network

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Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)
OSC is the dedicated engineering service channel defined
in ITU-T G.692
• It assigns (1510±10) nm or (198.5±1.4) THz for the OSC
• While the 1510 nm is convenient for C band, another
supplier proprietary OSC wavelength such as 1630 nm can
be assigned for L-band
• The OSC transmits the line supervisory or engineering
service information such as the number of traffic channels
installed, order wire traffic, etc.

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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Anything over DWDM

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Anything over DWDM

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Layers of Typical Networks

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Typical Optical Core Network

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Different Networks Layers

IP with (PPP/HDLC/SDL) IP/MPLS

Frame Relay

ATM

SONET/SDH/PDH

Optical Adaptation Layer

Physical Layer (Optical Fiber)


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Functions of Optical Adaptation Layer

Provides end-to-end
transparent networking
Optical Adaptation Layer • Carry multiple
Provides protocols
multiplexing for
Thewavelength
multi overhead includes
optical
fault detection and
signals
•performance
The overheadmonitoring
includes
monitoring fault and
performance
Optical Channel Layer
This transmits optical
Optical Multiplex Section Layer signals on various kinds of
fibers
Optical Transmission Section Layer
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Different Approaches for IP over DWDM

• IP►FR►SDH►DWDM
• IP►FR►ATM►SDH►DWDM
• IP►ATM►SDH►DWDM
• IP►SDH►DWDM
• IP►DWDM
The Approach for direct IP over WDM
• Optical Adaptation Layer Approach
• MPLS Lambda Labeling Approach

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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DWDM Networks: Measurement Parameters
T R

Purely Optical Parameters (All Channels)


Power, , OSNR ► OSA

Quality Parameters (Related to a Single Channel)


 ‘Logical Layer’ Parameters:
LOS, LOF, FEC (G.709) ► BERT
 ‘Physical Layer’ Parameters (S/N):
BER, Jitter, Wander, Q Factor ► BERT, Q-meter

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DWDM Field Testing
Automatic Power Reduction (APR)
 APR is an important function for automatic shutdown of optical
output when the system detects fiber cut.
 Necessary for safety maintenance.

LOC-OTS

CUT
T1 R2
Txpnd Rxpnd
APR APR
R1 T2
Rxpnd Txpnd
APR
LOC-OTS
TERM IL1 IL2 TERM

R2 at IL2 detects LOS as LOC-OTS (Loss of Continuity of Optical Transport Section).


R1 at IL1 detects LOS.
IL1 automatically shutdown its output from T1.

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Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTDR makes use of the backscattered light from the fiber for
its measurements

OTDR sends a pulse of light through the fiber. The OTDR can
correlate what it sees in backscattered light with an actual
location in the fiber, through which it can create a display of the
amount of backscattered light at any point in the fiber.

splice

Power
(dB)

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Distance Fiber attenuation connector 1
6
Information in the OTDR Trace
The slope of the fiber trace shows the attenuation coefficient of the fiber and is given in
dB/km.
In OTDR jargon connectors and splices are called “events”.
These events should show loss but they also show a reflective peak.
The height of that peak will indicate the amount of reflection at the event, unless it is so
large that it saturates the OTDR receiver.
Then peak will have a flat top and tail on the far end, indicating the receiver was
overloaded.
Reflective pulses can show you the resolution of the OTDR.
You cannot see two events closer than is allowed by the pulse width.
Long pulse width is used for the long distance cable plant test and narrower pulses are
used when high resolutions needed

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Understanding and using the OTDR

Show Video

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DWDM Testing

Wavelength Mux Wavelength Demux

Repeater Repeater

OTU OTU OTU


(Section A) (Section B) (Section C)

ODU (Path X)

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OTU = Optical Channel Transport Unit
ODU = Optical Channel Data Unit
1
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DWDM Testing

The ODU layer is for Mux to Mux, or PATH management and


performance monitoring.

The OTU is for network device to network device or SECTION


management and performance monitoring.

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Loop Back

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Cross Talk
• Effect of other signal on the desired signal
• Two types:
• Inter-channel Crosstalk
• Intra-channel Crosstalk

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a. an optical demultiplexer
b. an optical switch with inputs at different wavelengths
1
8
Cross Talk
The penalty is highest when the state of polarization of the
cross talk signal is the same as the SoP of the desired signal

Crosstalk reduction

• Improve the crosstalk suppression at the desired level


• Spatial dilation or wavelength dilation for crosstalk reduction

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• Fusion Splicer
Inset heat shrinkable sleeve to one of the fibers
• Mount the prepared fiber in the Splicing machine
• Align the fibers
• Fuse the fibers
• Check the splice loss using OTDR
• If the splice loss is within the limit, remove the splice put the splice protector
• After the sleeve shrinks remove the same fix it in the splice protection tray
• Keep the splice protection tray in the joint closure of fiber distribution frame
frame and close it.

Factors which can affect


the loss of a fusion splice?
• External factors like dirt, dust etc.
• Cleave angle
• Fiber positioning or view angle
• Geometry of the fibers
• Eccentrically positioned fiber cores
• Problems with the machine itself
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Mechanical Splicing

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Agenda
Optical Fibers – Spectrum, Propagation and Types
Optical Fibers Impairments – OSNR, Attenuations, Dispersions, etc.
Optical Transmitters and Receivers – LEDs, Lasers and Detectors
Optical Amplifiers – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
Optical Fiber Links – Power Budget and Capacity
WDM Basics – Dense and Coarse WDM
WDM Components – Transponders, Mux-Demux and OADMs
ITU-T Standards – Fibers Standards and WDM Standards
Optical Networking using DWDM – Topologies and Protections
DWDM Applications – Anything over DWDM
Test and Measurements – OTDR, Testing, Splicing, etc.
DWDM Deployments in VSNL

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DWDM Evolution

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Global Network Hierarchy

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Key DWDM Players
DWDM markets are expected to grow from $3.4 billion in 2002 to
$3.6 billion in 2008

Nortel Networks
Ericsson
Ciena
Fujitsu Optical Transport Solutions
Lucent Technologies
Hewlett Packard
Alcatel
Tellabs JDS Uniphase
Siemens Huawei
Sorrento Lightbit
NEC Lumentis
ADVA Optical Manticom Neworks
Agilent Technologies Marconi
Avici Systems Optical Micro-Machines
Avonex PacketLight
Cisco
Sycamore Networks
Corning
Telect 1
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ECI Telecom
9
VSNL Optical Networks

International Submarine Optical Fiber Network

National Long Distance Optical Fiber Network

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Delhi
NLD Backbone

1*10 G
DWDM Network
Gwalior

1* 2.5 G
G

G
10
Chhatrapur

4*

1*10
Ahmedabad Bhopal
2*10 G 2*10 G
Narsinghpur
2*10 G
2*10 G 2*10 G Nagpur 2*2.5 G
4*2.5 G 2*2.5 G

MUMBAI 3*10 G
3*2.5 G
3*10 G Pune
4*2.5 G
3*10 G
3*2.5 G HYDERABAD
3*10 G
Kolhapur 3*2.5 G
2*2 0 G
G

G
3*10
.5
3*1

5 G
3*2.
3*10 G
3*2.5 G 10 G NEC
G
3*10 CHENNAI 10 G Alcatel
G
BANGALORE 3*2.5
2.5 G Alcatel
2*10 G
2*10 G
10 G Planned

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Ernakulam
1
9
Metro and Access Network
Mega POP

Major POP Major POP

Major POP Major POP

Micro POP
CWDM Micro POP
Ring
Micro POP
Micro POP

Aggregation switch

Building switch
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WDM Systems in VSNL’s Network
System WDM Type Capacity

NEC SpectralWave 40/80 DWDM 2.5 G / 10 G


Long Haul 10G
Alcatel Metro 1696 (National Backbone )

Cisco ONS 15454 DWDM 10 G / 2.5 G


(Metro Network)

ADVA FSP 2000 Coarse WDM 2.5 G


(Access Network)
Huawei Metro 6100

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NEC SpectralWave 40/80

Number of Wavelength – 40 (extendable up to


80)
Bit Rate – STM 64/16/4/1, OC 192/48/12/3, etc.
Operating Wavelength – C band (1550 nm),
L band (1580 nm)

Span – 640 km
(80 km x 8 spans)
Add-drop – up to 50%

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Alcatel Metro 1696

32-channel WDM system


D/CWDM technologies
Reconfigurable OADM with single wavelength
add/drop granularity
Point-to-point, ring, and mesh topologies
Up to 16 nodes per ring, up to 600km network
circumference
Full range of service interfaces - SDH/SONET
and Data traffic support with TDM
concentration

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Cisco ONS 15454 Multiservice Transport Platform

• Reconfigurable ROADM
• Intelligent DWDM
•Supports
• DCN and SAN: 1 and 2 Gbps Fiber Channel, ESCON, FICON
• Ethernet: Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet (LAN / WAN)
• Optical: SONET / SDH: OC-3/STM-1 to OC-192/STM-64

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ADVA Fiber Service Platform 2000

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Huawei Metro 6100

Range of service interfaces from 16Mbit/s


to 10Gbit/s
Support all protocols, STM-1/4/16/64, OC-
3/12/48/192, Fast/G Ethernet, etc.
Adds/drops service can upgrade from 1
wavelength to 40 smoothly
Reconfigurable OADM
Reliable SAN solutions

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