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Air around us is a mixture of many gases and dust particles. 1.One-fifth of the air is oxygen.

It is the clear gas in which living things live and breathe. It Oxygen is necessary for combustion
and respiration.

has an indefinite shape and volume. It has no colour or smell 2. Photosynthesis in plants is possible

. Air is a mixture of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, because of carbon dioxide in the air

0.9% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and very small 3. Nitrogen present in the air is
necessary for the growth of plants

amounts of other gases..Animals need the oxygen in the air

to live. In the human body, the lungs give oxygen to the blood,
and give back carbon dioxide to the air. Plants need the
carbon dioxide in the air to live. They give off oxygen that
humans can breathe again.
Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological
molecules, and many harmful substances into Earth's
atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, Death to humans,
1.Air pollutants come in the
damage to other living organisms such as animals and food form of gases or particles.
crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may 2.In the great "Smog Disaster"
in London in 1952, four
come from anthropogenic or natural sources . Indoor air thousand people died in a few
days due to the high
pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the World's concentrations of pollution
worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith
Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report
According to the 2014 WHO report, air pollution in
2012 caused the deaths of around 7 million people
An atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding
a planet or other material body. An atmosphere
is more likely to be retained if its gravity is high
and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. 1.We live in the
The atmosphere of earth is mostly composed 2.Most of the clouds and
rain are in stratosphere.
of nitrogen. It also contains oxygen and other 3.stratosphere extends up
gases in trace amounts, Used by to 48km above the earth!

most organism for respiration and carbon

dioxide used by plants, algae for photosynthesis.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have facts
1.The highest amount of rainfall ever
condensed from atmospheric water vapour and then precipitated recorded in one year is 25.4 meters
(1000 inches) in Cherrapunji , India.
, thus become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a 2.Antartica is the driest continent on
major component of the water cycle and is responsible for 3.Heavy rain can cause flooding and
depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides landslides.
4.Rain allows us to create electricity
suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water through hydropower.

for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-
dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as
weather fronts.
1> 30% of fresh water is
Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is
in the ground.
2> 1.7% of the world’s
the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and
water is frozen and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H 2O,
therefore unusable.
3> unsafe water kills 200 meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen
children every hour. atoms, that are connected by covalent bonds. Water strictly refers to
the liquid state of that substance. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.
It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's crust
water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and
the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies
(e.g. lakes, rivers). This form of environmental
1:The total volume of water available on
degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or Earth is about 1.4 billion km and about 70%
of the earth is covered in water.
indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate 2: The largest quantities of water are in the
treatment to remove harmful compounds.Water oceans.
3:At least 320 million people in China do not
pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and have access to clean drinking water.

organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all

cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species
and population, but also to the natural biological
Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that
together support life on Earth.. Soil is called the Skin of the Earth…


1.Soil acts as a filter for underground water,
filtering out pollutants
2.Approximately 10% of the world’s carbon
dioxide emissions are stored in soil
3.oil consists of 45% minerals, 25% water, 25%
air & 5% organic matter
The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle of oxygen within its two main reservoirs: the atmosphere (air), the total content of biological matter
within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), and the Earth's crust. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis ,
which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmosphere and life on earth
The greenhouse effect is the process by which
radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the
planet's surface to a temperature above what it
would be without its atmosphere. If a planet's
atmosphere contains radiatively active gases Fact 1: The last two decades of the
(i.e., greenhouse gases) the atmosphere will 20th century have been hottest in
the last 400 years, according to
radiate energy in all directions. Part of this climate studies.
Fact 2: The Arctic is one of the
radiation is directed towards the surface, worst places to be effected
by global warming.
warming it.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of
Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of
the Sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It 1. Ozone was first
contains high concentrations of ozone(O3) in discovered and isolated by
the German-Swiss chemist
relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although Christian Friedrich
Schönbein in 1839.
still small in relation to other gases in the 2. Schönbein named it
ozone from the Greek verb
stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less than 10 ozein, meaning to smell.

parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone

concentration in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is
about 0.3 parts per million.
9-C …