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Chapter KF 16, GY 4
Forces for Changes

Roles or Technology

Economics &

Types of Models of Change
Types of Models of Change

Common elements of change: Stages to reaction:

1. Learn and unlearn

2. Motivate of Fail - needs constant
motivation Denial - Anger - Mourning - Adaptation
3. People make it or Break it - employee
behaviors have to change
4. Even winners resist - resistance
5. Reinforce to sustain - new behaviors,
attitude, org practice and cultures
Types of Models of Change

Lewin’s Change Model

Model of Change
A Systems Model of Change

Any change will

have ripple
● In order
● Tremendous
commitment of
time, money
and people


Kotter’s Eight-Stage Organizational Change Process

Organizational Development Processes
Understanding the Resistance of Change KF 16.3 + GY 4

Resistance to change is any thought, emotion, or behaviour that does not

align with actual or potential changes to existing routines
Reasons for Accepting or Rejecting Change GY 4

● Proposed Change is not Necessary

● Proposed Change is not Feasible
● Change is not cost Effective
● Change would cause personal Losses
● Proposed Change is inconsistent with Values
● Leaders not trusted
Dynamic view of Resistance
Causes of the Resistance to Change

● Recipient Characteristics
● Change Agent Characteristics
● Change Agent-Recipients Relationship
The Good and the Bad of Stress KF 16.4

Job stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur
when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities,
resources, or needs of the worker.

Stress that is associated with positive emotions and outcomes is called

Model of Occupational Stress
Potential Stressors Outcome

Individual Level Psychological/ Attitudinal

Group Level Behavioral

Cognitive Appraisal Coping Strategies

Organizational Level Cognitive

Extra-Organizational Physical Stress

Effective Change and Stress Management
Applying System Model of Change-Strategy Planning & Diagnostic

Why Change?

Change What
and How?
Overcome Resistance to Change
Managing Stress
Managing Stress

The ABCDEs of Cognitive A name Adversity or Activating events or problem

five-step process of cognitive B list your Beliefs about the event or problem
restructuring that can help
you stop thinking C Identify the Consequences of your beliefs
pessimistically about an event
D Disputing or formulate a counterargument to your initial
or problem
thoughts and beliefs. Pessimistic thoughts are generally
overreactions, so the first step is to correct inaccurate or
distorted thoughts

E describe how Energized and empowered you feel at the

moment or feel the Effect “updated” beliefs.

“The best years of your life are the ones in which you decide your problems are your own. You do not blame them
on your mother, the ecology, or the president. You realize that you control your own destiny.” – Albert Ellis.
Collective Learning and Innovation
How do organization acquire new knowledge?
Source of knowledge Example

Internal Creation of New ● Subunits with responsibility for continually assessing and improving work processes
Knowledge ● “Innovation teams”

External Acquisition of New ● Publications on results of applied research

Knowledge ● Consultants who have relevant expertise
● “Benchmarking”

Exploration and Exploitation ● Exploration: finding innovative new products, services, processes, or technology
● Exploitation: learning how to make incremental improvements in existing products,
services, or processes
● Successful organization/firms are able to develop new products and services (involving
exploration) simultaneously with delivery of existing ones in an efficient way (which
involves exploitation)
Collective Learning and Innovation

After new knowledge is acquired, what next?

Knowledge Diffusion ● Codify best practices and effective procedures in written or
and Application electronic manuals
● Special purpose conference to facilitate sharing of new knowledge
and ideas among the subunits of an organization
● Seminars and workshops

Learning Organizations ● A major mistake is the common belief that top management should
have most of the responsibility for leading change and innovation
● People at all levels should be empowered to deal with problems
and find better ways of doing the work
Enhancing Learning and Innovation

❏ Recruit talented, creative people and empower them to be innovative
❏ Encourage appreciation for flexibility and innovation
❏ Encourage and facilitate learning by individuals and teams
❏ Help people improve their mental models
❏ Evaluate new ideas with small scale experiments
❏ Leverage learning from surprises and failures
❏ Encourage and facilitate sharing of knowledge and ideas
❏ Preserve past learning and ensure continued use of relevant knowledge
❏ Set innovation goals
❏ Reward entrepreneurial behavior