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AIR CONDITIONING OF SMALL

BUILDINGS

SRCA
INTRODUCTION
• Cooling system vary mostly by the way heat is
transferred from the rooms to the refrigeration
machine/mechanical room and from there to the
heat sink. The choice of the heat transfer
methods depends on building type and size.
• Cooling system are often classified by the fluids
that are used to transfer the heat from the
habitable spaces to the refrigeration
machine/mechanical room.
SYSTEM
• Choice of system will depend on building
purpose and degree of occupancy. There are
three categories :
i. All -Air system
ii. All-water system
iii. Combination Air-water System
ALL-AIR SYSTEM
• Air is blown across the cold evaporator coil and
then delivered by ducts to the rooms that require
cooling.
• Air systems can effectively ventilate, filter and
dehumidify air.
• The main disadvantages lies in the bulky
ductwork that is required.

Schematic diagram of an all-air


system.
.
ALL-WATER SYSTEM
• The water is chilled by the evaporator coil and then
delivered to fan-coil units in each space. Although
the piping in the building takes up very little space,
the fan-coil units in each room do required some
space.
• Ventilation, dehumidification and filtering of air are
possible but not as effective as with an air system.

Schematic diagram of an all-water


system.
.
COMBINATION AIR-WATER SYSTEM
• In smaller buildings, the heat given off by a refrigeration
machine/mechanical room is usually dumped into the atmosphere by
blowing outdoor air over the condenser coil.
• To make this heat transfer more efficient, water can be sprayed over the
condenser coil.
• Medium sized buildings often use a specialized piece of equipment called an
evaporative condenser to dump heat into the atmosphere by evaporating
water.
• A cooling tower also dumps heat into the atmosphere by evaporating water.
• This cooling tower is pumped to the refrigeration machine/mechanical
room. Most cooling towers are placed on roofs.

Schematic diagram of an air-water system.


.
Common locations for centralized mechanical equipment
spaces in large multistorey buildings.
AIR CONDITIONING OF SMALL
BUILDINGS
• There are 3 units air conditioning in small
building :
i. Window units
ii. Packaged units
iii. Split units
WINDOW UNITS
• For air conditioning single spaces like motel rooms, a window units is used.
• The condenser coil, compressor and one fan are on the exterior side of an
internal partition. The compressor is on the outside because it is the
noisiest part of the equipment.
• On the interior side of the partition there is the evaporator coil and a fan to
blow air over it.
• As indoor air passes over the evaporator coil, its temperature is often
lowered below its dew point temperature.
• An adjustable opening in the interior partition allows a controlled amount
of fresh air to enter for ventilation purposes.

A schematic diagram for a window unit air


conditioner that can heat as well as cool
PACKAGED UNITS
• Packaged units are pre-engineered self-
contained units where most of the mechanical
equipment is assembled at the factory.
• They offer low installation, operating and
maintenance costs.
• Rooftop versions are the most common with
each unit serving a separate zone.
• Packaged units are also used on the ground for
building with crawl spaces or above suspended
ceiling when there is enough space below the
roof.
PACKAGED UNITS
Packaged units can contain both
heating and cooling equipment
WATER COOLED PACKAGED UNIT
(WATER-COOLED)
WATER COOLED PACKAGED UNIT
(AIR-COOLED)
SPLIT UNITS
• Most homes and some other buildings find the
split units to be most appropriate.
• In the split unit, the compressor and condenser
coils are outdoors while the air handling unit
with the evaporator coil is indoors.
• The air handling unit also contains the central
heating systems.
• The illustrate the use of split systems for a small office
building. The air handling units (AHU) with their
evaporator coils and heating systems are in a
mechanical equipment room (MER)
• The supply ducts are above a suspended ceiling but on
the indoor side of the roof insulation.
• The air is supplied to each room through a top register
or a ceiling diffuser. Return air grilles and ducts bring
the air back to the air handling units.

A schematic diagram of a split unit system


.
Two split units for a small office building.
SPLIT UNIT – WALL MOUNTED
SPLIT UNIT – CEILING MOUNTED
SPLIT UNIT- CASSETTE TYPE
SIMPLIFIED INSTALLATION AND
MAINTENANCE
SIMPLIFIED INSTALLATION AND
MAINTENANCE
SPLIT UNIT- FLOOR STANDING
SPLIT UNIT – CEILING DUCTED
FLOOR STANDING – FREE BLOW
FREE STANDING – VERTICAL DISCHARGE