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Introductory Psychology:

Statistical Analysis

The use of mathematics to

organize, summarize and
interpret numerical data
Statistical Analysis:
The Basics on Distributions
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

 Frequency Distribution
 A table or graph that shows how often different
numbers or scores appear in a particular set of scores
 Histogram
 A bar graph that shows a frequency distribution

 Polygon
 A line graph that shows a frequency distribution
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

Glasses # of Glasses of Water

of H2O People 7
1 0 6
2 1 5
3 2 Histogram 4
4 4 Glasses of Water 3
5 5 7 2
6 6 6 1
5 0
7 5
4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
8 4 3
9 2 2
10 1
Frequency Distribution 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

 The Normal (Bell) Curve

 A special frequency polygon in which the scores are
symmetrically distributed around the mean

Mean, median and mode

Used as a guideline for

intelligence, height, weight, etc.
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

 Positively Skewed Distribution

 Scores are concentrated at the low end of the
 Negatively Skewed Distribution
 Scores are concentrated at the high end of the
 Bimodal Distribution
 Frequency distribution in which there are two high
points rather than one
The height
of hobbits

The height
of NBA
Statistical Analysis:
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics PART TWO

are used to organize

and summarize data

Key Descriptive Statistics

1. Central Tendency
2. Variability
3. (Correlation Coefficient)
Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

WHY is the description of data important?

Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

 Measures of Central Tendency

Numbers that
 Mean
best represent
 The arithmetic average of ALL the most typical
scores in a distribution score of a
 (Impacted by outliers) frequency
 Median
 The middle score in an ordered
distribution of scores; the 50th percentile
 (Not impacted by outliers)

 Mode
 The most frequent score in a distribution of scores
 (Not impacted by outliers)
Ali Ben Carol Sara Evan Greg Hal Inga Jay Mary

95 98 100 100 100 102 103 139 150 160

Outliers IMPACT the mean!

Mean IQ Score (114.6)

Median IQ Score (101)

Outliers IMPACT the mean!

Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

 Measures of Variability
Refers to how
 Range
much the scores
 The difference between the highest & in a data set
lowest scores in a distribution vary from each
 Standard Deviation other and from
the mean
 The measure of the average
difference between each of the values in a data set
 (If the scores are clustered around a central
point, the measures of variability will be
Scores are more spread out Scores are
and NOT clustered around a clustered around
central point; larger range a central point;
and standard deviation smaller range
and standard
Standard Deviation in Action
Standard Deviation in Action
68.3% of population

Standard Deviation in Action
95.4% of population

2 SD 2 SD
Statistical Analysis:
Inferential Statistics


If we have results from two (or more) samples, we can ask…

“Is there a difference between the means of the two samples?”

“Are these results statistically significant?”

Analysis: Inferential Statistics

 Inferential Statistics
 Statistical analysis of two (or more) sets of data to:
1. Reduce the possibility of error in measurement
2. Determine if the differences between the data sets are
greater than chance variation would predict
 Inferential statistics look for statistical significance
 A statistical statement of how likely it is that an
obtained result occurred by chance
 A t-test is used to determine whether two means are
significantly different; yields a p-value
Analysis: Inferential Statistics

 p-value
 A measure of confidence in the observed difference

 Allows researchers to determine the probability that

the difference was due to chance
 A p-value of LESS than 0.05 (<o.05) is the common
criterion for statistical significance
 Translation
 The probability that the results are due to chance
alone is less than 5 times out of 100
 One can be 95% certain that the results are real and
not due to chance alone
Correlational Method

 Correlation expresses a
relationship between
two variables.
 Does not show

As more ice cream is eaten,

more people are murdered.

Does ice cream cause murder, or murder cause people to eat ice cream?
Types of Correlation
Positive Correlation Negative Correlation
 The variables go in
 The variables go in the
SAME direction. opposite directions.

Studying and
grades hopefully
has a positive

Heroin use and

grades probably has
a negative