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# Introductory Psychology:

Statistical Analysis
AP PSYCHOLOGY: UNIT I

## The use of mathematics to

organize, summarize and
interpret numerical data
Statistical Analysis:
The Basics on Distributions
PART ONE
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

 Frequency Distribution
 A table or graph that shows how often different
numbers or scores appear in a particular set of scores
 Histogram
 A bar graph that shows a frequency distribution

 Polygon
 A line graph that shows a frequency distribution
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

## Glasses # of Glasses of Water

of H2O People 7
1 0 6
2 1 5
3 2 Histogram 4
4 4 Glasses of Water 3
5 5 7 2
6 6 6 1
5 0
7 5
4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
8 4 3
Polygon
9 2 2
1
10 1
0
Frequency Distribution 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

##  The Normal (Bell) Curve

 A special frequency polygon in which the scores are
symmetrically distributed around the mean

## Used as a guideline for

intelligence, height, weight, etc.
Analysis: The Basics on Distributions

##  Positively Skewed Distribution

 Scores are concentrated at the low end of the
distribution
 Negatively Skewed Distribution
 Scores are concentrated at the high end of the
distribution
 Bimodal Distribution
 Frequency distribution in which there are two high
points rather than one
The height
of hobbits

The height
of NBA
players
Statistical Analysis:
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics PART TWO

## are used to organize

and summarize data

## Key Descriptive Statistics

1. Central Tendency
2. Variability
3. (Correlation Coefficient)
Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

## WHY is the description of data important?

Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

##  Measures of Central Tendency

Numbers that
 Mean
best represent
 The arithmetic average of ALL the most typical
scores in a distribution score of a
 (Impacted by outliers) frequency
distribution
 Median
 The middle score in an ordered
distribution of scores; the 50th percentile
 (Not impacted by outliers)

 Mode
 The most frequent score in a distribution of scores
 (Not impacted by outliers)
Ali Ben Carol Sara Evan Greg Hal Inga Jay Mary

## Mean IQ Score (114.6)

Median IQ Score (101)

## Outliers IMPACT the mean!

Analysis: Descriptive Statistics

 Measures of Variability
Refers to how
 Range
much the scores
 The difference between the highest & in a data set
lowest scores in a distribution vary from each
 Standard Deviation other and from
the mean
 The measure of the average
difference between each of the values in a data set
 (If the scores are clustered around a central
point, the measures of variability will be
SMALLER…)
Scores are more spread out Scores are
and NOT clustered around a clustered around
central point; larger range a central point;
and standard deviation smaller range
and standard
deviation
Standard Deviation in Action
Standard Deviation in Action
68.3% of population

1SD 1SD
Standard Deviation in Action
95.4% of population

2 SD 2 SD
Statistical Analysis:
Inferential Statistics

PART THREE

## “Are these results statistically significant?”

Analysis: Inferential Statistics

 Inferential Statistics
 Statistical analysis of two (or more) sets of data to:
1. Reduce the possibility of error in measurement
2. Determine if the differences between the data sets are
greater than chance variation would predict
 Inferential statistics look for statistical significance
 A statistical statement of how likely it is that an
obtained result occurred by chance
 A t-test is used to determine whether two means are
significantly different; yields a p-value
Analysis: Inferential Statistics

 p-value
 A measure of confidence in the observed difference

##  Allows researchers to determine the probability that

the difference was due to chance
 A p-value of LESS than 0.05 (<o.05) is the common
criterion for statistical significance
 Translation
 The probability that the results are due to chance
alone is less than 5 times out of 100
 One can be 95% certain that the results are real and
not due to chance alone
Correlational Method

 Correlation expresses a
relationship between
two variables.
 Does not show
causation.

## As more ice cream is eaten,

more people are murdered.

Does ice cream cause murder, or murder cause people to eat ice cream?
Types of Correlation
Positive Correlation Negative Correlation
 The variables go in
 The variables go in the
SAME direction. opposite directions.

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